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Create a Social Studies Lesson Plan Including Spatial Awareness. Using the following State of Maine Learning Standard and Performance Expectation for Kindergarten  Strand: Civics & GovernmentStandard: Students draw on concepts from civics and government to understand political systems, power, authority, governance, civic ideals and practices, and the role of citizens in the community, Maine, the United States, and the World.  Performance Expectations Kindergarten: Civics & Government 3Students understand the concepts of rights, duties, responsibilities, and participation by explaining the purpose of school/classroom rules and local laws encountered in daily experiences to promote to the common good and the peaceful resolution of conflict.Create a lesson plan—- Before you start working on creating a lesson plan please familiarize yourself with the content of this website: https://rise.articulate.com/share/9zmdfRzhfg95zTrggIZN2ctTwERFV4hI#/ and the Maine Learning Results (available in this module’s folder) first, and pick a topic (you feel comfortable with/ knowledgeable about) proper for your elementary social studies lesson plan. Following the general scheme for lesson plans (provided in the notes for this week), create a lesson plan based on the topic of your choice and addressing your weakest intelligence(s).You are creative and have many good ideas, don’t borrow ideas from the Internet.Please note that the purpose of such assignments is to help you learn and master the skills needed to plan and successfully teach social studies in elementary school.I WILL ATTACH THE LESSON PLAN OUTLINE YOU NEED TO USE AND OTHER SUPPORTING MATERIAL THAT SHOULD BE USED AS WELL
Create a Social Studies Lesson Plan Including Spatial Awareness. Using the following State of Maine Learning Standard and Performance Expectation for Kindergarten Strand: Civics & Governmen
Instruction Plan for a Single Lesson Name: ___________________________________ Date: ___________________ Grade Level: _____ Subject/Topic______________________________________ Group Size: _____ Individual ______Small Group ( ) ______ Whole Class ( ) Standards: Which Maine Learning Results, Common Core Standards, Next Generation Science Standards or Provincial Standards do these objectives support? 1. These objectives support Standard 5 of the Common Core Standards. It requires the teachers to employ a wide range of skills as they read and use different reading and writing processes to communicate with different students for a variety of lessons. 2. These objectives also support other misc standards that include substantial interaction with students to assess their understanding of the lesson. Objectives/Outcomes: What do you want the students to learn? (Observable & Measurable) The students will: (SWBAT know/do) 1. Pronounce/read/write basic English words commonly used in poetry. 2. Recite rhymes with fluency Instructional Materials: What instructional materials or technology will you need? To effectively deliver the lesson, I would need the following reading materials for the children. “It’s Raining Pigs & Noodles” by Jack Prelutsky. It is the perfect poetry book for elementary school students. “The Random House Book of Poetry for Children” is another great collection of elementary poems by Jack Prelutsky. “A Child’s Garden of Verses” is a poetry collection for elementary students by Robert Louis Stevenson. “Here’s a Little Poem: A Very First Book of Poetry” is a useful resource for elementary school poetry by Jane Yolen. “Runny Babbit” is a children’s poem book by Shel Silverstein specially design for elementary school children. “Kids’ Poems: Teaching Kindergartners to Love Writing Poetry” by Regie Routman. Introduction: How do you plan to introduce the lesson and/or motivate the students? (Attention Getter, Review, and/or Preview) Explain your purpose. I would consider following or taking reference from the given steps: Asking introductory questions to get the students thinking about the topic of the poetry. This would include assessing their pre-existing knowledge or ideas so that I can have a better understanding of their existing awareness. Showing pictures or videos related to the topic of the lesson to make the learning process more interactive and interesting. Bridging the gap between the introductory part and the main concept of the lesson with a small story to show the significance of the topic. The main intent behind the purposes is to make the introductory part so interactive for the students that they find the topic interesting and get engaged with the lesson. Procedures: How will the lesson develop or proceed? What steps will you follow? Include questions you will ask and examples you will provide. The process of developing a poetry lesson and proceeding with it requires certain steps to be followed in a sequence. I will follow the given steps to establish the preceding: Reading the poem aloud to the students. It will help in setting the stage for a poem especially with the reading materials that have a different perspective that children might not be familiar with. As the lesson proceeds, I would want them to follow along with a copy while I read the poem to the students. Next, I will hand out the poems and other material to the students and identify the words that students are not familiar with. I would also consider preparing a small step by step guide with the definition of some of the difficult words and encourage the students to copy the same definitions or ask them to come up with their interpretation of it, whichever sounds easy for them. Once the definition part is done, I would read the poem aloud again as a student would now be familiar with the vocabulary. This will be followed by asking students to tell in their own words what do you understand by its stanza of the poem as I help to translate the poem for them. In addition to this, I will also ask a few questions from the students to evaluate their understanding and assessment of the poem. What are stanzas? How many stanzas are in the poem? What do they understand by the title of the poem? Who are the main characters? Who are the other characters? What are some of the difficult words that the students find hard to pronounce or write? What are the difficulties being faced by the students about the poem? Upon getting responses to the above-listed questions, I will record the response of every student and discuss them on one on one basis. Assessment/Check for Understanding: How will you measure if the students have met the lesson objective? To identify whether the students have met the required lesson objectives or not, I will prepare for a planning assessment. Proceed with this I will consider these two main points: What evidence shows that the students have attended the desired learning objectives? This would include written and oral assessments to test the understanding of the students about the context of the poem. The assessment can be left at the option of students to either present it in written or oral. What other assessment tasks and evidence will guide the instruction? To measure this, I would ask each student to write their responses and submit them individually which will help to assess their understanding of the context. Closure/Transition: How will you end the lesson? To end the lesson, I would conclude by asking the students what they have learned from the lesson through a review activity. It is essential so that I can see the progress they have made for a given individual lesson. To evaluate your forces I would take the last 5 or 10 minutes of the class to ask them, “What have you learnt today? However, I would make sure that I communicate this without telling them the same. I would also work on performance correction and feedback through a small activity that would enable the students to correct their wrong learnings and any other mistake they might have committed during the lesson. Lastly, I would wrap the lesson and assign the homework if required. Accommodations/Differentiation: What modifications could you make to lesson procedures, materials, or assessment/check for understanding? Sometimes, making modifications is required in the existing lesson procedures materials and assessments to check the prevailing understanding. For the current poetry lesson, I would consider including more assessment activities for the students to check their understanding of the lesson and see if they have any feedback on the same. However, it would also include the addition of extra creative activities to be included in the curriculum so that students can explore their creative sides while they learn the lesson. UMPI College of Education Lesson Plan Format Revised 5/19/15
Create a Social Studies Lesson Plan Including Spatial Awareness. Using the following State of Maine Learning Standard and Performance Expectation for Kindergarten Strand: Civics & Governmen
PART I. Planning Social Studies Instruction In previous module you have learned about the complex and interdisciplinary nature of elementary social studies. You’ve learned that many ideas and concepts could, or should, be applied to teaching social studies. This time you will learn how to create a lesson and a unit plan. Before you start planning Basic issues in planning social studies instruction Instructional planning – a result of successful planning experiences – a clear rationale (what and how do we want to achieve) – a good use of the limited instructional time The process of planning social studies instruction should begin with the teacher’s adoption of any or all of the following perspectives: – transmission of the cultural heritage – concepts and methods of inquiry from the social studies – reflective inquiry – informed social criticism – personal development – development of reflection, competence, and concern – development of a global perspective Interdisciplinary and integrative teaching: although often used interchangeably, the two terms have significant differences – interdisciplinary – can be parallel topic teaching among teachers who also provide opportunities for students and subjects to come together when appropriate or possible. Teaching in a way that shows the interdisciplinary nature of learning demonstrates the real world; students are able to see the fact in light of the full picture – integrative – blends the disciplines; taught by one teacher Expectations for the learning results have to be clear The importance of rubrics (guidelines that spell out what is to be included in the study and how the study is to be evaluated) The instruction, assignment, and evaluation can be differentiated to meet the needs of all students The importance of timing The seven-step instructional model (Gagné and Briggs) 1. gain attention 2. inform the learner of the objective 3. stimulate recall of prerequisite learning 4. present the stimulus material 5. elicit desired behavior 6. provide feedback 7. assess behavior Goals, Objectives, and Learning Outcomes Goals, Objectives, and Learning Outcomes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_Xm5IljYKQ&feature=youtu.be  Social studies objectives for instruction Goals → communicate what the broad general framework for the curriculum will be, distinguished by their level of generality Objectives → related to goals, however more specific translate goals into specific statements of what students are expected to learn and/or do as the the outcome of some measure of instruction Objectives may be stated for individual lessons, for as unit of study, or for the entire course Examples of goals: The course of study will help students: 1. prepare to be technology literate in the workplace 2. acquire the necessary skills for effective interpersonal relationships 3. understand the dominant mainstream culture and the major ethnic subcultures in the USA 4. develop and understanding of and tolerance for different values and lifestyles 5. exercise their rights and responsibilities as citizens of a democracy Examples of objectives  Behavioral or performance objectives provide the degree of specificity and describe clearly the expected behavior of the student writing statements of objectives: – “The student will be able to…” – “To write/draw/point to – lists of verbs Lesson planning: – includes taking into account: 1) what has come before the lesson 2) what is to follow it 3) what happens during it A great variety of lesson plans Planning a lesson plan  Even if you had plenty of practice writing lessons during your teacher training, it’s hard to be prepared for the avalanche of lesson planning you’ll have to do once your first year of teaching begins. To rev up the learning curve, here are eight questions to “think aloud” as you prepare lessons. The answers will help you create high-quality, on-target plans. At the beginning of the year, you’ll probably refer to the questions frequently, but after several months of planning, you’ll be a whiz. The process will become automatic! Lesson planning: – includes taking into account: 1) what has come before the lesson 2) what is to follow it 3) what happens during it A great variety of lesson plans Eight Questions to “Think Aloud” as You Prepare Lessons Students: What are the academic, social, physical, personal, and emotional needs of my students? Strategies: Which teaching strategies will best facilitate my students’ learning? Grouping: Should I group heterogeneously or homogeneously? What size should my groups be? Timing: When is the best time to do this lesson? Are there prerequisites my students should have mastered? Materials: What materials and human resources do I need for the lesson to be successful? Success: Was the lesson successful? Were my students interested? Did my students learn? What didn’t work? What will I do differently next time? Sequence: What can I do next to build upon this lesson? How can I make it flow? Rationale: What is the reason for doing this? What objectives will be accomplished? The Secrets of Daily Lesson Planning Your daily lesson plans should detail the specific activities and content you will teach during a particular week. They usually include: Lesson objectives                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Maine Learning Results for Social Studies (Revised 2019) Attachment Description pdfMaine%20Learning%20Results%20for%20Social%20Studies%20-%20Revised%202019.pdf Procedures for delivering instruction Methods of assessing your students Student groupings Materials needed to carry out the lesson plan As with all planning, the format of lesson plans will vary from school to school. Many school districts provide lesson-plan books, while others allow teachers to develop their own format. Regardless of the format, here are the key components of successful lesson planning: Instruction Plan for a Single Lesson Name      and   Date Grade Level      and     Subject/Topic Group Size Objectives/Outcomes:  What do you want the students to learn? (Observable & Measurable) The students will:  (SWBAT know/do) Standards:  Which Maine Learning Results, Common Core Standards or Provincial Standards do these objectives support? Instructional Materials: What instructional materials or technology will you need? Introduction:  How do you plan to introduce the lesson and/or motivate the students?                                        (Attention Getter, Review, and/or Preview) Explain your purpose. Procedures: How will the lesson develop or proceed? What steps will you follow? Include questions you will ask and examples you will provide. Assessment/Check for Understanding: How will you measure if the students have met the lesson objective? Closure/Transition: How will you end the lesson? Accommodations/Differentiation:  What modifications could you make to lesson procedures, materials, or assessment/check for understanding? Your lessons should be readable and detailed enough that a substitute teacher could teach from them in an emergency. Consider making a copy or two of each week’s plan. I used to take one copy home and place others at key areas in my classroom so I could leave my actual lesson-plan book on my desk at all times, available for the principal. This also allowed me to work at home on preparing materials for upcoming lessons and on planning for the following week without fear of misplacing my lesson book! Try scripting your lessons. It was time-consuming, but in my first few years of teaching, it helped me be better organized and more confident in front of my students. As a general rule, begin working on plans for the next week no later than Thursday. By then you will have an idea of which lessons weren’t completed, the objectives that need to be reinforced, and which upcoming school-wide activities need to be integrated into your plan. If you leave the planning until Friday after school, it may not get done! Make a master copy or template of the planning pages you use, and write or type those activities that stay the same each week and the times they occur. Make several copies of the new page to replace the blank lesson-plan pages, but don’t copy them too far in advance, in case you change your weekly schedule. Then just fill in the blanks on the copies with specifics for the week. Balance grouping strategies and activities in each learning style or multiple intelligence type so you are meeting the needs of all your students. Check with your principal for guidelines on when he or she will want to look at your lesson plans. Some principals make a point of viewing new teachers’ lesson plans on a weekly basis so they can provide on-the-spot assistance throughout the school year. This article was adapted from The New Teacher’s Complete Sourcebook: Grades K–4 by Bonnie P. Murray (© 2002, Scholastic). source: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/new-teachers-guide-creating-lesson-plans/ The first thing you need to do to create a Lesson Plan Template is to open Word (or other word processor) and type the title Lesson Plan. You can play with the font and size later. Right now, all you need is the title. Next type in subject, grade level, and lesson title. It should look like this: Lesson Plan Subject: Grade Level: Lesson Title: I prefer to center this information at the top of my lesson plan, but that is up to you. Next, create a heading for each section of your lesson plan as follows: Standards: This is where you will cut and paste your state or local standards that will be addressed in the lesson. Objective: This section is for making a statement of what the student will be able to do at the end of the lesson. Materials: This section lists all the materials you will need for the lesson. Don’t forget to include handouts, markers, colored pencils or notebooks. Procedure: This is where you will state exactly what you will do and what you expect the student to do. Be sure to include questions you will ask. Assessment: This section should include how you will assess whether or not the student met the objective you listed in your lesson plan. Will you use a rubric, teacher observation, or student products? Adaptations: This section should contain any adaptations to the lesson plan you need to make for a child with a disability in the classroom. This could range from having an adult check for understanding, reading the text aloud, or even scribing for the child. Notes: This section is for you to use after you have taught the lesson. You may want to jot down ideas for how you can improve the lesson next time or how well the lesson worked. Once you have created these sections, it is time to be creative and add some graphics. Place your cursor at the point you want your graphics to appear and click insert. Click on graphics and choose the graphic you would like and double click on it. Once you have done this, you can shrink or enlarge the graphic by manipulating it by the corners. I like to add a small colored graphic in the top corner of the lesson plan that connects to the lesson or the subject. I also like to use colored font, and sometimes a different font, for the headings that are slightly larger than the regular font. This provides visual appeal and allows you to see each section at a glance. Simply highlight your text and try out different colors or font styles. When you have the basic template the way you want it to appear, save it as lesson plan template. You will use this same template for all your lesson plans. Create a new folder to keep all of your lessons in one handy place. Save the state and local standards in the same folder. I recommend saving them according to subject area. I have State of Maine Learning Results saved in each subject area. Make sure to name the folder and the individual files a name that will be easy to identify. Now, when it is time to write your lesson plans, you have everything at your fingertips . Simply open the folder and open the blank lesson plan file. Type in the name of the lesson and go to file and click on “save as”. Save the lesson by name, subject, or date. Do not wait until you are finished to save the file, as your computer may automatically save the file. If you have not renamed it and saved it by the new name, the auto-save feature will save your new lesson plan over the lesson plan template. Continue to fill in the lesson plan. When you are finished, simply save the lesson plan. For each new lesson plan you write, follow the same procedure, being careful to save the new lesson plan under its own name, so you will always have a blank template to work with. Print your plans and insert into a plastic sleeve in a binder. Once you have taught the lesson, you can fill in notes of what you might want to change in the future or on what things went well. Keep these in your binder for future use. Basic issues in planning social studies instruction Instructional planning – a result of successful planning experiences – a clear rationale (what and how do we want to achieve) – a good use of the limited instructional time Basic issues in planning social studies instruction Instructional planning – a result of successful planning experiences – a clear rationale (what and how do we want to achieve) – a good use of the limited instructional time The process of planning social studies instruction should begin with the teacher’s adoption of any or all of the following perspectives: – transmission of the cultural heritage – concepts and methods of inquiry from the social studies – reflective inquiry – informed social criticism – personal development – development of reflection, competence, and concern – development of a global perspective The process of planning social studies instruction should begin with the teacher’s adoption of any or all of the following perspectives: – transmission of the cultural heritage – concepts and methods of inquiry from the social studies – reflective inquiry – informed social criticism – personal development – development of reflection, competence, and concern – development of a global perspective Interdisciplinary and integrative teaching: although often used interchangeably, the two terms have significant differences – interdisciplinary – can be parallel topic teaching among teachers who also provide opportunities for students and subjects to come together when appropriate or possible. Teaching in a way that shows the interdisciplinary nature of learning demonstrates the real world; students are able to see the fact in light of the full picture – integrative – blends the disciplines; taught by one teacher Interdisciplinary and integrative teaching: although often used interchangeably, the two terms have significant differences – interdisciplinary – can be parallel topic teaching among teachers who also provide opportunities for students and subjects to come together when appropriate or possible. Teaching in a way that shows the interdisciplinary nature of learning demonstrates the real world; students are able to see the fact in light of the full picture – integrative – blends the disciplines; taught by one teacher Expectations for the learning results have to be clear The importance of rubrics (guidelines that spell out what is to be included in the study and how the study is to be evaluated) The instruction, assignment, and evaluation can be differentiated to meet the needs of all students The importance of timing Planning a unit plan Organizing subject matter into units A unit – a series of sequenced and related learning activities organized around some theme, issue, or problem, along with goals, objectives, resources for learning, and procedures for evaluation Units may be designed for any length of time (usually, they require from two to six weeks to complete) Units are available through any number of sources Teachers as one of the major developers of individual units. Teachers build on their special interests, expertise, and experiences Units: resource units – are more extensive and detailed than teaching units; – designed as multipurpose collections of material to be used by many different teachers for a variety of students – list more subtopics, objectives, teaching strategies and activities, resources, and evaluation procedures than an individual teacher needs to use for a topic teaching units – tailored for a specific population of students and for a given length of time Key social problems, questions, and themes may serve as the foundation for a unit. Units may be constructed around multiple perspectives (different views, or interpretations of the same set of events) – personal/cultural – popular – mainstream academic – transformative academic – school Using Concept Maps to Plan Units A concept map – a listing and an ordering of all of the major concepts to be discussed within the unit Teachers should focus on four to seven concepts that are central to the unit How to Create a Unit Plan Outline? 1. Title the Unit Plan with a name that states the topic or theme of the entire unit. 2. Develop curriculum-framing questions. These are questions that you want students to be able to answer after they have completed all components of the unit. An essential question is one question that is the “big idea” of the whole unit. Unit questions are three to five questions that are components of the essential questions, but pertain to the whole unit, as well. Content questions are even more specific and ask questions about the content presented within the unit. 3. Include a unit summary that describes in one or two short paragraphs the content that is going to be presented in the unit. 4. List the national or state standards that the unit is going to address. 5. Break down the unit into small pieces, such as chapters. Write a short phrase that describes the content that will be taught in the smaller sections. 6. Make a list of the assessments that will be given during the unit and at the end of the unit. This can include assignments, journal entries, observations, quizzes and a unit test. 7. End the unit plan with a listing of the tools and resources that you will be using during the unit. See also: “Thematic Unit Planning in Social Studies: Make It Focused and Meaningful ”  https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1073950.pdf       source: Canadian Social Studies    and “Instructional Unit Samples – Social Studies”  https://www.cde.state.co.us/standardsandinstruction/instructionalunits-socialstudies PART II  Assessment in Social Studies  The Changing Natureand Purpose of Assessmentin the Social Studies Classroom Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy Over the past several years, social studies has become a more visible school subject, and the conception of learning social studies has evolved from doing and knowing to experiencing and making meaning. The tacit and piecemeal curriculum that has long characterized the social studies classroom seems to be gradually giving way to a more coherent and integrated set of objectives, benchmarks, and performance indicators. This approach is goal oriented with an emphasis on learner outcomes: the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and dispositions to action that teachers wish to develop in students. Ideally, curriculum planning and implementation decisions will be guided by these goals, so that each element involved in the process—the basic content, the ways the content is represented and explicated to students, the questions asked, the types of teacher-student and student-student discourse that occur, the activities and assignments, and the methods used to assess progress and grade performance—will be included as a means needed to move students toward accomplishment of the major goals. In this article, we focus on the changing nature of social studies assessment and its importance as a major curriculum component. A Brief History of Assessment in Social Studies While assessment is now considered to go far beyond testing, testing has always had a place in social studies teaching, because evaluation is considered an integral part of curriculum and instruction and because students must be graded for report card purposes. There has also been a mindset that if an area of learning is important, it must be tested, although traditionally this has been applied mostly to the basic skills subjects. Until recently, social studies tests were not seen as especially important or controversial. After summarizing what was then known about evaluation in social studies, Kurfman concluded in 1982 that teacher-made tests predominated over norm-referenced tests and tests that came with curriculum materials; that objective tests were used more commonly than essay tests (especially with low-ability students); and that items concentrated on knowledge and skills, with only slight consideration given to affective outcomes.1 Kurfman also claimed that teachers were not very sophisticated about evaluation, did not engage in it very much, and were not very inventive in their approaches when they did. One of the most comprehensive sources for locating instruments to evaluate various aspects of K-12 social studies programs is the Social Studies Evaluation Sourcebook.2 Instruments described include general social studies achievement tests, specific knowledge tests in the social science disciplines, and critical thinking skills tests. Instrument analyses are also provided in the areas of student attitudes, interpersonal skills, self-concept, personality, values clarification, moral development, and classroom climate. Other publications that describe social studies tests include the two most recent editions of the Yearbook of Mental Measurement (the 10th edition and the 11th edition and its supplement).3 Among the tests included are the Basic Economics Test, the Dimensions of Self-Concept, and the Children’s Inventory of Self-Esteem. The 291 evaluation instruments described in these sources are often incorporated into research initiatives but rarely used at the classroom level because they are costly in time, effort, and money. These instruments generally represent narrow segments of the social studies and are most helpful when a particular element of social studies needs attention. Usually, they are not comprehensive enough to reflect the values underlying a schoo#146;s social studies program, and districts are seldom prepared to use the results to make large changes in their social studies curricula. Social studies has also become part of a number of national testing programs. The National Assessments of Educational Progress (NAEP) monitor the educational progress of America’s students. National results are provided that describe students’ history and geography achievement at Grades 4, 8, and 12.4 The College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) includes achievement tests dealing with American history and social studies and with European history and world cultures. CEEB also offers a battery of tests that includes social studies.5 Many state testing programs also include a social studies component for high schoolers, especially advanced placement students. This pattern seems to be expanding and is being implemented in earlier grades. Social studies educators have been pushing for inclusion in state initiatives because they fear that if social studies is not substantially represented from the elementary level on, it will lose its place as a core subject. In the Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning, Kurfman in 1991 reaffirmed that testing has begun to receive serious attention from social studies educators.6 A common criticism of social studies tests in the past has been their failure to measure student attainment of major social studies understandings, appreciations, life applications, and higher order thinking. Several scholars have concluded that the prevalent multiple choice format focuses on low-level knowledge objectives.7 This format may be valid for some social studies learnings, but it has obvious limitations. On the other hand, formats such as essay or open-ended testing that require large blocks of time are also questioned, due to the already limited time allocated for social studies instruction. Other issues center around the effects of testing on achievement and the validity of test scores as evidence of actual accomplishment (which we take to mean acquisition of understanding, appreciation, and the ability to apply powerful social studies ideas). The influence of testing on curriculum and instruction can be positive if teachers and administrators take steps to ensure that test results are valid indicators of what students are learning. The first step is to see whether a test measures outcomes that the school system values. If it does, the next step is to make sure that the content, skills, and formats represented in the test are aligned with the schoo#146;s social studies curriculum and instruction. If not, measures congruent with what the school values must be sought. If the schoo#146;s goals and values extend beyond what is measured, other assessment tools need to be added in order to provide a more complete profile of social studies learning. We believe that any robust social studies curriculum, beginning in kindergarten, will use a set of measures that extends beyond conventional tests. We address what this range of measures might include later in this article. Assessment should produce feedback that carries potential implications for adjustments in curriculum and instruction. This will occur if all of the program’s elements—its content, its instructional methods, its activities and assignments, and its assessment measures—are aligned with its goals. This ideal relationship among program components breaks down, however, if the components begin to be treated as ends in themselves, which often happens to assessment components when high-stakes testing practices take hold. Theoretically, it is never a good idea to have assessment measures (rather than goals) driving the curriculum. Currently, several states are developing curriculum frameworks to guide K-12 social studies instruction and assessment. For example, the Michigan Task Force for Social Studies Education has insisted that statewide testing be based on the curriculum framework (see Bruce Brousseau, “Can Statewide Assessments Help Reform the Social Studies Curriculum?,” in this issue of Social Education, pp. 356-359). It remains to be seen whether the various tests proposed will adequately represent the scope of the curriculum without requiring inordinate testing time. Additional measures will also need to be woven throughout programs to monitor implementation by teachers and achievement by students. If these challenges can be met, the results derived from such high stakes tests, in combination with other less standardized measures, may serve as valid indicators of progress in social studies. On the other hand, if they fail to align with the goals, if they are narrow in scope, or if they fail to incorporate other measures, there is good reason for concern about high stakes tests distorting the curriculum in undesirable ways. The Present: A Broader View of Assessment and Evaluation National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and leading scholars on assessment methods have been arguing for assessment that is well aligned with major social studies goals, more complete in the range of objectives addressed, and more authentic in the kinds of tasks included. It is hoped that such assessments can meet the need for accountability while avoiding the possible narrowing effect on the curriculum that current versions of high-stakes testing might have. The NCSS Advisory Committee on Testing and Evaluation recommends the following guidelines for assessment: Evaluation instruments should: focus on the curriculum goals and objectives; be used to improve curriculum and instruction; measure both content and process; be chosen for instructional, diagnostic, and prescriptive purposes; and reflect a high degree of fairness to all people and groups. Evaluation of student achievement should: be used solely to improve teaching and learning; involve a variety of instruments and approaches to measure knowledge, skills, and attitudes; be congruent with the objectives and the classroom experiences of the students examined; and be sequential and cumulative. State and local agencies should: secure appropriate funding to implement and support evaluation programs; support the education of teachers in selecting, developing, and using assessment instruments; involve teachers and other social studies professionals in formulating objectives, planning instruction and evaluation, and designing and selecting evaluation instruments; and measure long-term effects of social studies instruction.8 Several scholars have been arguing for alternative assessment techniques in response to concerns about high stakes testing, accountability pressures, curriculum reforms, the needs of diverse learners, and changes in teaching and learning (e.g., the blending of transmission and constructivism).9 Also, educators have been adopting the premise that assessment is a natural, indispensable part of curriculum development, so that as teaching practices change, alignment requires that assessment practices change as well. For example, two teaching practices that have been emphasized recently are the constructivist approaches of cooperative learning and structured discourse. Assessing Collaboration in the Group Setting One challenge for teachers using constructivist approaches is to ensure that students collaborate thoughtfully as they strive to construct new understandings. Newmann identified six key indicators of thoughtfulness that are useful in the assessment of discourse at all levels: 1. Classroom discourse focuses on sustained examination of a few topics rather than superficial coverage of many. 2. The discourse is characterized by substantive coherence and continuity. 3. Students are given sufficient time to think before being required to answer questions. 4. The teacher presses students to clarify or justify their assertions, rather than accepting and reinforcing them indiscriminately. 5. The teacher models the characteristics of a thoughtful person (showing interest in students’ ideas and their suggestions for solving problems, modeling problem-solving processes rather than just giving answers, and acknowledging the difficulties involved in gaining clear understandings of problematic topics). 6. Students generate original and unconventional ideas in the course of the interaction.10 Thoughtfulness scores based on these indicators distinguish classrooms that feature sustained and thoughtful teacher-student discourse about the content from two types of less desirable classrooms: (1) classrooms that feature lecture, recitation, and seatwork focused on low-level aspects of the content, and (2) classrooms that feature discussion and student participation but do not foster much thoughtfulness because the teachers skip from topic to topic too quickly or accept students’ contributions uncritically. Teachers can assess other aspects of student discourse using observation tools that focus on variables such as how well the group process is working. For example, the teacher might observe a few students each day and provide feedback on behaviors such as: helps define the issues, sticks to the topic, is an interested and willing listener, considers ideas contrary to one’s own, synthesizes information presented by peers, generalizes when appropriate, and arrives at conclusions that produce new meaning.11 Michaelis and Garcia offer several guidelines for assessment-oriented observation: look for specific behaviors, so that you are not biased by your overall impressions of students (halo effects); look for both positive and negative behaviors; and focus on recording observations as objectively as possible, saving the recording of personal reactions until afterwards.12 Ensuring Individual Accountability A second challenge for teachers using social constructivist methods is how to measure individual effort as each student builds his or her own unique representation of what gets constructed in a group setting. Research on cooperative learning indicates that student achievement is maximized using models that combine group goals with individual accountability.13 We expect that similar findings will emerge from research on social constructivist teaching methods. Group projects accompanied by student-led conferences or expert review panels can provide bases for assessing accomplishments that reflect a complete unit or several units. Exhibits of student accomplishments displayed in individual portfolios or other substantive school projects also provide ideal bases for conferencing. The goal is to help students gain insights into the motives, learning processes, and standards surrounding their performances.14 Conferences and review panels serve as vehicles to help students assess their progress and make plans for future initiatives. Graves observed that “Children don’t know what they know. When we speak or when someone elicits information from us, it is as informative to the speaker as it is to the listener.”15 Public presentations such as panels and conferences should raise students’ interest in their own learning, helping them to become more reflective about it and to take more responsibility for it. Student-led conferences provide opportunities for students to synthesize, articulate, and communicate the large ideas they have come to understand. The content then becomes their own, which makes for more permanent learning. Meanwhile, the teacher or other participant (e.g., peer, high school mentor, parent) has the opportunity to listen, give feedback, and become informed. Parents have the rare opportunity to spend focused time on a school subject that includes some of the context surrounding what their children are learning. As they listen to their children talk about what they are learning in social studies and the connections they are making between it and their own lives, parents can pick up clues about how to support their children’s social studies education. For example, they can become alerted to resources that might be helpful on a particular project (e.g., magazine or newspaper clippings, television documentary, resource persons they know). Pitfalls and Possibilities of Alternative Assessment While alternative assessment seems reasonable given the changes in social studies curricula and the increased attention to how students learn best and the diversity among learners, the tools of alternative assessment should be selected to align with social education goals. Even then, some experts continue to voice concerns. For example, most alternative assessments being recommended are untested, so that their reliability, validity, and effects are unknown; also, teachers may design an assessment system that is too narrow.16 Too often, assessment tools become ends in themselves. For example, students merely “do” portfolios, or alternative assessments are mandated as ways to address multiple intelligences and diverse learning styles, without the provision of adequate measures of learning. While it remains unknown whether state and national standards, high stakes testing, and alternative assessments will actually improve social studies, we believe school districts and individual teachers should use the resources available to develop a comprehensive assessment package that reflects classroom practice and provides multiple snapshots of student work across time. We offer the following set of guiding principles for creating, monitoring, and implementing alternative assessment in the classroom. 1. Assessment is considered an integral part of the curriculum and instruction process. 2. Assessment is viewed as a thread that is woven into the curriculum, beginning before instruction and occurring at junctures throughout in an effort to monitor, assess, revise, and expand what is being taught and learned. A comprehensive assessment plan will represent what is valued instructionally. Local initiatives should draw on state and national standards and any other sources that can enhance local practices. 3. Assessment practices should be goal-oriented, appropriate in level of difficulty, feasible, and cost effective. 4. Assessment should benefit the learner (promote self-reflection and self-regulation) and inform teaching practices. 5. Assessment results should be documented to “track” responses and develop learner profiles. Conclusion Currently, teachers are faced with many obligations, responsibilities, and frustrations regarding assessment. The professional literature and conference agendas extol the use of standards, benchmarks, and testing, as well as the potential benefits of alternative assessments with particular attention to the types that are considered “authentic.” While there remain many unresolved issues, we encourage classroom teachers to move responsibly forward by adopting, adapting, and refining assessment practices that have the potential for improving teaching and learning. Source: http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6306/630603.html   *********************** Perfect Assessment? There is no perfect assessment and grading system !!! Assessment – focuses primarily on discovering what students know and are able to do prior to, during, or after instruction In assessment the major emphasis is on: 1. whether students can demonstrate certain behaviors or knowledge 2. how well they can demonstrate them Assessment as a natural and ongoing part of the instructional cycle Meaningful assessment as an integral part of effective planning and teaching Why Assess? 1. Students need to know how they are doing 2. Students’ parents need and want to know 3. Teachers need to know to what extent their students are learning important ideas, skills, and content What Should Be Assessed? We can’t assess everything In social studies: – The standards as our long-term goal structure – One should consider the age level and the specific course of study at a particular grade Units, day-to-day experiences Reading, discussing, writing, constructing, and performing ↕ Goals, plans, activities, and assessment make up our social studies curriculum Each of these separate pieces must be joined together in ways that make sense How Should We Assess? When you think of how you should assess, think of how you should teach, how your students should learn, and keep the assessment procedures in line with experiences For an assessment to be valid, it must be a representative measure of the material that was taught What Does a Quality Social Studies Assessment Look Like? What to Avoid: True/false questions – Think about when you were back in school; it’s test day and you’re antsy. You just want to do well so your mom doesn’t crack you upside the head / you want to keep that grade high / you want to impress this teacher, who’s known to be a real stickler on tests. You studied all night. You know the material. You come in and the test plops down on your desk – it’s 100 true/false questions. You got this, you tell yourself. A week later, the test reappears, and you erred on 25 of the questions, because you didn’t read deeply enough into the question. The teacher explains the Constitution was signed on September 17th, not the 18th or it was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that ended World War I for the Russians, not the Bulgarians. You rip your hair out. Don’t do that to your students. Major amounts of lower-level thinking – There’s a place and time for recall in social studies (everyone should learn the order of the first 4 presidents, or should know what countries fought on which side in World War II), but the entire test shouldn’t consist of more than 50% of recall questions. Negatively-worded questions – How many double negatives can you use until a student doesn’t not not want to take your tests anymore? Which of the following is not true questions should be avoided. Lengthy answers in multiple choice questions – Most answers should be about a line on a Word document; more than that exponentially increases the processing time to answer the questions appropriately and correctly. All of the above / none of the above answers – Those answer choices are tricky. Try to eliminate or curtail them unless it’s a concept that you emphasized very much. Essays that involve a regurgitation of your ideas – Teachers in general are an intelligent lot. We social studies teachers are especially adept at many things, such as the English-Language Arts side of things, science (for technological changes), and math in terms of battle schematics, just to name a few. But one thing we need to encourage students to think on their own. Give them an open-ended prompt that has many answers, not just the one your lecture included 5 days ago. What to Include: Backwards design – This term, coined by Jay McTighe, involves beginning with the unit assessment first rather than last. It makes sense – you should teach to your own test! We should retire the days of “I forgot to teach this, but it’s on your test tomorrow.” Common assessment – This buzz word isn’t going anywhere, because you and the teachers who teach similar subjects in your own district and more so in your own school should be testing the same exact concepts. Why? Because next year they’re going to move onto the next grade or onto college, and there are certain things those social studies teachers and/or history professors will expect them to know. Sit down with your colleagues and map out the 50-100 most important concepts, ideas, people, events, and more – and include them in your tests together. Multiple choice questions – You may hate this suggestion, but students are so (over-) exposed to standardized tests that they need to continually see challenging multiple choice questions that include at least 4 or 5 options for correct answers. Quality decoy answers to multiple choice questions – The correct answers shouldn’t be obvious unless that student studied and worked hard. They need to be rewarded by not having “Bozo the Clown” and “Snoopy” as part of the choices in an answer set. Primary sources – One beauty of social studies is that is was once alive. Assessments should not forget that. I once scrapped a test and gave students 5 primary sources to view. I gave them the “essential questions” / learning objectives and asked them to reflect on how these sources relate to those questions and objectives. I was blown away at their answers, and have been included primary sources ever since. Think about it – at least one picture, portrait, or snippet of words can really test a student’s understand of what you taught them, and that’s the goal of an assessment in the first place. Social studies skills – Tests should include at least one social studies concept from some of the following ideas: timeline, evaluating evidence, cause and effect, technological impacts, political impacts, making inferences, mapping, author bias, citations, primary vs. secondary sources, interpreting graphs, and so on. Social studies concepts – I have a colleague who puts what he calls “the 5 major themes” as posters in his room and tests them on every test. Here’s a great list of social studies themes from Syracuse University and another from a Wikispaces’ page. Whether you teach and / or tests these directly or indirectly, themes should be present in your instruction and assessment. Common Core Standards – Whether or not you agree with them, they’re here – and probably to stay. Tests should include the standards for English-Literacy and Social Studies (in your content area). AP-based questions – See if you can get a few sample questions from the AP and learn how they are written, especially Document-Based Questions (DBQ’s). There are nearly 20 different AP social studies courses that students can take, so find what best fits your curriculum and use them as a basis to guide your hand in crafting questions (it’s a criminal offense to use exact questions!). Thought-provoking essay / short answer prompts (at least 2 choices) – As mentioned above, students should be given the opportunity to display their opinions rooted in examples of what was just taught in your class. In fact, they should have at least 2 essays to choose from, and every test should include an essay because long after they’ve forgotten about the Mongolian invasions, they’ll remember how you helped them express their ideas better. Adapted tests – Don’t forget about your ELL (English language learners), special ed, and gifted students. They should have some accommodations to their specific abilities. Non-test assessments – We’re so eager and ready to put a test at the end of every assessment that we need to stop being part of the over-testing problem in education and start being part of the solution. You love social studies – that’s why you became a social studies teacher – so shouldn’t some of your assessments reflect that? For my revolution unit, I dropped my test in favor of two assessments – a battle recreation (whether using Minecraft, a diorama, or a YouTube video) and having students dress the part of one of the Founders. It’s my favorite assessment (and theirs, too!). Source: https://theeducatorsroom.com/what-does-a-quality-social-studies-assessment-look-like/ Authentic Assessment vs Traditional Assessment Authentic assessment, as defined by Jon Mueller, is “a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.” This type of evaluation checks students’ understanding and knowledge through circumstances that model real-world situations in which those skills are typically required.  It’s important to keep in mind that “traditional and authentic assessment are not mutually exclusive means of checking students’ progress, but should, instead, be used to complement one another. The informed teacher uses traditional assessment to test the breadth of students’ knowledge, while authentic assessment measures the depth of understanding and the ability to apply the knowledge. Traditional assessment requires learners to select answers in multiple-choice or matching questions, or to recall facts in fill-in-the-blank and short answer questions. It is usually norm-referenced and focuses on measuring the acquisition of a specific body of knowledge. Authentic assessment, on the other hand, is criterion-referenced. It involves “backward planning,” in which teachers decide what students need to be able to do in order to show their mastery of the targeted knowledge and skills. They then develop a set of learning activities and experiences that will provide students with the essential knowledge, skills, understanding and tools to complete the required task. Students receive a rubric of the project’s criteria before they begin the task. Authentic assessment is also valuable in teaching students how to evaluate their own performance, which is an important skill in the world outside the schoolroom. However, because it is often more time-intensive than traditional assessment, it is not appropriate for every part of the curriculum. Types of authentic assessment take many forms, all of which involve higher order levels of thinking. ” Source: https://www.brighthubeducation.com/student-assessment-tools/103531-types-of-authentic-assessment/ For an in-depth examination of Authentic Assessment, its various forms and applications, please familiarize yourself with Jon Mueller’s Authentic Assessment Toolbox at: http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/index.htm PART III The last part of this week’s module is dedicated to examining the importance of various forms of diversity and their impact on teaching and learning social studies in elementary school. Multiple Intelligences There is a need for making the subject matter of social studies accessible to all students. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences was used to create social studies lessons,identify multiple instructional techniques and strategies,and integrate multiple intelligence theory into the assesment process. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences for a Social Studies Teacher LEARNING STYLE TEACHING ACTIVITIES TEACHING MATERIALS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Linguistic Lectures, discussions, word games, choral reading, journal writing, historical research, — Read about it, write about it, listen to it Books, tape recordings, primary source documents, artifacts Essays, written reports, newspaper and magazine articles, speeches, oral reports, journals, diaries, Historic literature, poetry, debate Logical Mathematical Brain teasers, problem solving, science experiments, mental calculation, number games, critical thinking, cause/effect, -Quantify it, think critically about it, conceptualize it, hypothesize its uses Calculators, math manipulatives, science equipment, math games, primary source documents (census records) Time lines, computer data bases of statistics, cost analysis, percentages, advantages/disadvantages, inquiry lessons, surveys Spatial Visual presentations, art activities, imagination games, mind-mapping, metaphor, visualization, video, film –See it, draw it, visualize it, color it, map it Graphs, maps, videos, block sets, art materials, slides, prints, posters, camera, artifacts, Atlas, Almanac Cultural maps, physical maps, Photo Essay, Video, Organizational charts, political cartoons Bodily Kinesthetic Hands-on learning, drama, dance, tactile activities, sports that teach — Build it, act it out, , get a “gut” feeling, dance it, excavate it Building tools, clay, sports equipment, manipulatives, tactile learning resources, excavation tools, artifacts Build a model, role plays, skits, demonstrations, fieldtrips, board games, flip shutes, electroboards, body action wall and floor games, craft projects, archaeology excavations Musical Super learning, rapping, songs that teach — Sing it, Listen to it Tape recordings, Musical instruments, CD’s, sheet music, lyrics Compose songs or lyrics to a piece of music based on history, create historic discographies, musical performances Interpersonal Cooperative Learning, peer tutoring, community involvement, social gatherings — Teach it, collaborate on it, interact with it Board games, party supplies, role playing props, guest speakers Oral Interviews, simulations, group projects, peer tutoring, mock trials, fieldtrips, historical empathy, case studies, jigsaw activities, brainstorming, team learning Intrapersonal Individualized instruction, independent study, self-esteem building — Connect it to your personal life, making choices, value clarification Self-checking materials, journals, project materials, textbook, literature Genealogy, create historical diaries, scrapbooks, journals, self-designed projects, learning centers, textbook activities, personal histories, tutorials, drill and practice, task cards, Contract Activity Pa Multiple intelligence learning styles are a great way to start to increase interest in a subject and use differentiated instruction.  Differentiated Instruction can be a great tool to use to interest and excite your students and shouldn’t be overlooked as an option for every day lessons. Differentiated instruction can be done through the use of the multiple intelligence learning styles as well as leveling, scaffolding or tiering. Teachers can use multiple intelligence learning styles to differentiate instruction in not only the mini-lesson but also the work session activities and pretty much any other part of the lesson. Offer students up to four choices of activities for a work session, all using the same content, but using different multiple intelligence learning styles. The students will choose the one that they think will be the most interesting to do. According to many social studies teachers once students get allowed to choose the activities the day before, their interests peak. They feel like they have ownership in their education and look forward to coming to the class the next day.  Learning style – refers to how people would prefer to learn about things: 1. visual approach 2. auditory explanation and instructions 3. manipulative learners Factors that influence learning style: – environmental factors – sociological factors – emotional factors – physiological factors – psychological factors See for example: http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/learning/learning-theory/factors-influencing-learning-education/2531 Another way to differentiate instruction to increase excitement is through the use of leveling. Leveling is also known as tiering and scaffolding. This can be done by using the same content once again but at different levels. This is not less and or more work depending on “how smart” your students are. It has to do with taking students from one level to the next through the use of small steps. Differentiating instruction through the use of leveling is easily done with expository writing. Teachers can take a student from a topic sentence and the listing of three facts to a topic sentence with one fact sentence and then listing two facts and so on. Students need to see that there is hope at the end of the tunnel and if they have a learning disability or are ELL, many times writing can be an overwhelming task for them. Using small differentiated instruction leveled steps helps them feel success and improves their attitude in the subject. Whether a teacher uses leveling or multiple intelligence learning styles to differentiate instruction, they stand a chance of really interesting their students in their subject area or content. FYI See also: Yvonne Rae Brahams, “Development of a social studies curriculum reflecting Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences”(1997) https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=2424&context=etd-project ************************************************* Multicultural  In this part of the module multicultural aspects of elementary social studies  education will be topics under close scrutiny. Education, being a multifaceted social phenomenon, both influences and is impacted by many factors. Without examining and taking such social contexts into consideration one can not understand the function of education in the contemporary world. Multiculturalism, cultural diversity, are key, and defining ,elements of the American society. They should, although not always are, reflected in today’s American schools’ curricula. What does it mean in practice? It means that, as postulated by Prof. James Banks, there is a constant need to transform existing curricula into ones that will be more multicultural, inclusive, promoting acceptance.  Levels of Integration of Multicultural Content A Brief Summary James A. Banks Level 1 The Contributions Approach Focuses on heroes, holidays, and discrete cultural elements In this approach, ethnic content is limited primarily to special days, weeks, and months related to ethnic events and celebrations. Cinco de Mayo, Martin Luther King’s Birthday, and African American History Week are examples of ethnic days and weeks celebrated in the schools. During these celebrations, teachers involve students in lessons, experiences, and pageants related to the ethnic group being commemorated. When this approach is used, the class studies little or nothing about the ethnic group before or after the special event or occasion. Level 2 The Additive Approach Content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to curriculum without changing its structure. The Additive Approach allows the teacher to put ethnic content into curriculum without restructuring it, a process that would take substantial time, effort, training, and rethinking of the curriculum and its purposes, nature, and goals. The additive approach can be the first phase in a transformative curriculum and to integrate in with ethnic content, perspectives, and frames of reference. However, this approach shares several disadvantages with the contributions approach. Its most important shortcoming is that it usually results in the viewing of ethnic content from the perspectives of mainstream historians, writers, artists, and scientists because it does not involve a restructuring of the curriculum. Level 3 The Transformation Approach The structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspectives of diverse ethnic and cultural groups. The Transformation approach changes the basic assumptions of the curriculum and enables students to view concepts, issues, themes, and problems from several ethnic perspectives and points of view. The mainstream-centric perspective is one of only several perspectives from which issues, problems, concepts, and issues are viewed. It is neither possible nor desirable to view every issue, concept, event or problem from the point of view of the cultural, ethnic, and racial groups that were the most active participants in, or were most cogently influenced by, the even, issue, or concept being studied. Level 4 The Social Action Approach Students make decisions on important social issues and take actions to solve them The Social Action Approach includes all the elements of the transformation approach but adds components that require students to make decisions and take actions related to the concept, issue, or problem studied in the unit. Major goals of instruction in this approach are to educate students for social criticism and social change and to teach them decision-making skills. To empower students and help them acquire political efficacy, the school must help them become reflective social critics and skilled participants in social change. The traditional goal of school has been to socialize students so they would accept unquestioningly the existing ideologies, institutions, and practices within society and the nation-state. (Adapted from James A. Banks’ “Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform,  One Ummah Consulting, 2003) While teaching elementary social studies one mustn’t forget that a person’s culture and upbringing has a profound effect on how they see the world and how they process information. In other words, children of some non-American origin see the world in terms of the relationship between things, whereas the American children see the world in terms of the objects as distinct entities. This information is helpful when we consider how cultural background might influence approach to learning and school performance. There are a number of theories that seek to explain differences in school performance among different racial and ethnic groups. Three theories stand out: the cultural deficit theory, the expectation theory, and the cultural difference theory.  The cultural deficit theory states that some students do poorly in school because the linguistic, social, and cultural nature of the home environment does not prepare them for the work they will be required to do in school. As an example, some students may not have as many books read to them as are read to children in other homes. Not being able to read has a negative influence on their vocabulary development. Vocabulary development may also be stifled by the amount and nature of verbal interaction in the home. As a result, some children arrive at school lacking the level of vocabulary development expected. The cultural deficit theory proposes that deficiencies in the home environment result in shortcomings in skills, knowledge, and behaviors that contribute to poor school performance.Expectation theory focuses on how teachers treat students. Teachers often expect less from students of certain racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. When teachers expect students to perform poorly, they approach teaching in ways that align with their low levels of expectations. In these instances, students tend to perform at the low levels expected of them by teachers. Rosenthal and Jacobson tested this theory in their Pygmalion effect study. A group of teachers were told that their students were due for an intellectual growth spurt during the school year. Even though the students were average in terms of academic performance, the teachers interacted with them based on this expectation. All students in the experimental group improved both academically and socially by the end of the year. Based on the notion of a self-fulfilling prophecy, students who experience high expectations seek to reach the level of expected behaviors. Correspondingly, students who experience low expectations act to meet the level of behavior expected of them. The cultural difference theory is based on the idea that students who are raised in different cultural settings may approach education and learn in different ways. It is important for teachers to be aware of the difference between the school atmosphere and the home environment. People from different cultural traditions may have an approach to education that differs from the mainstream approach used in American schools. For instance, differences can be noted in the Polynesian concept of learning, whereby younger children are generally taught by older children rather than by adults. This is a very different approach to learning and one that may need to be considered in an American school that is attended by Polynesian students. Teachers need to ensure that they incorporate methods of teaching in their classrooms that accommodate various beliefs and cultural notions students bring to school. This requires each teacher to develop an understanding of their student’s culture, but also to know who their students are as individuals. It is also important for teachers to ensure that they treat all students the same and to have high expectations for each one, so that they will all strive to reach their full potential. Source: https://www.huffpost.com/entry/education-culture_b_1034197  See also: Cultural Diversity in Elementary Schools Intro to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGTVjJuRaZ8&feature=emb_title ************************** Social Studies and English Language Learners (ELL) n such a diverse, multilingual, and multicultural country as the US, it is very unlikely that you, as an elementary social studies, will  always have only US-born English native speakers among your students. In this segment of the module we will examine what could or should be done if so happens. One of the greatest challenges in helping English language learners (ELLs) master Social Studies content is the role of background knowledge. The resources below provide ideas and guidance for planning effective Social Studies lessons for ELLs as well as for choosing appropriate academic language and vocabulary.  Dual-language education (formerly called bilingual education) that refers to academic programs that are taught in two languages is considered the most effective in meeting the educational, linguistic, even psychological needs of learners in social studies classes.   The following are the main forms of dual-language education:  Transitional programs provide students with some level of instruction in their primary or native language for a certain period of time—generally one to three years—before students transition into English-only instructional programs. They are known as “one-way” programs because they only serve one group—non-native English speakers. Maintenance programs provide students with concurrent instruction in English and their primary language throughout their elementary-school years—typically pre-kindergarten through sixth grade—with the goal of developing English fluency and academic literacy in both languages. (Both transitional and maintenance programs include instructional strategies associated with English as a second language). Two-way enrichment programs teach both native and non-native English speakers in two languages with the goal of developing bilingual fluency. In some cases, monolingual English-speaking students may be immersed in second-language instruction alongside native speakers of the language with limited English ability. When used, dual-language education is generally seen as a way to ensure that non-English-speaking students, or students who are not yet proficient in English, are given equal opportunities to succeed in and complete their education. While schools and teachers may use a wide variety of dual-language strategies, each with its own specific instructional goals, the programs are typically designed to simultaneously develop English fluency, content knowledge, and academic language—the knowledge, skills, and cultural proficiencies needed to succeed in an academic program. Although dual-language programs take a wide variety of forms from school to school, the programs generally include the following features: Dual-language curriculum and instruction: Depending on the specific model being used, the curriculum is typically presented bilingually and may be divided into distinct blocks of time—e.g., day one in English, day two in Spanish, day three in English, etc. Instruction typically does not include straight translation from language to language—teachers move through the curriculum as they would in an English-only course. Students in dual-language programs are generally required to meet the same learning standards and graduation requirements as other students. Bilingual teachers and instructional staff: If schools cannot employ bilingual teachers, they may pair monolingual English teachers with an assistant or educational technician who speaks the native language of the students in a class. Dual-language evaluation: When possible or required, students entering dual-language programs will be tested in English and their primary language to determine their proficiency levels in English and their first language. Careful attention is given to their knowledge of both conversational language (the language used in social interactions) and academic language (the language used in educational settings). Culturally and linguistically relevant learning materials: When available, students are given texts, videos, software applications, tests, and other instructional resources that are produced in their primary language, which may also include content and references that reflect the students’ specific cultural background. Dual-language assessments and accommodations: When they are not being tested on their language proficiency, such as in a math course, dual-education students may be assessed in their primary language. They may also be given various testing accommodations, such as bilingual dictionaries or additional time to complete a test. Bilingual orientation and liaisons: Incoming students and their families may be provided some form of orientation, particularly if the students are recently arrived immigrants or refugees who are unfamiliar with the expectations and culture of American public schools. Orientation sessions will be conducted in their native language, and bilingual students or staff members—sometimes called parent liaisons or home liaisons—may be assigned to maintain regular contact with the incoming students and their families. How does it look in practice, one might ask? It may include: using timelines to enhance comprehension preparing engaging, often hands-on, lessons organizing field trips with ELLs teaching ELLs to navigate textbooks effectively using primary sources (for example, from the Library of Congress) and new media projects FYI see also: Social Studies Instruction for ELLs                                                                                                          https://www.colorincolorado.org/teaching-ells/content-instruction-ells/social-studies-instruction-
Create a Social Studies Lesson Plan Including Spatial Awareness. Using the following State of Maine Learning Standard and Performance Expectation for Kindergarten Strand: Civics & Governmen
University of Maine at Presque Isle Rubric for Lesson Plan Name : ______________________________________ Date :______________ Course :______________ Performance Expectations Beginning 1 Developing 2 Proficient 3 Exemplary 4 Rubric Score Standards No reference made to standards Related content standards are minimally identified Related content standards are mostly detailed from MLR/CCSS Related content standards are fully detailed from MLR/CCSS Objectives (SWBAT know/do) Lesson objectives lack clar ity &/or measurability; connection to standards not apparent Lesson objectives somewhat clear & measurable; partial connection to the standard Lesson objectives are clear, measurable, and specific to the standard Lesson objectives are clear & measurable; learning progression is evident Materials & Use of Technology List of materials and use of technology given limited attention in the lesson plan List of materials and/or use of technology is incomplete or inaccurate. Teacher created handouts and/or oth er reproduced handouts are not attached to the lesson plan. List of materials and technology is provided and accurate for both teacher and students. All handouts, both teacher created and those reproduced from other resources, are attached to the lesson pl an. Detailed list of materials/technolo gy is provided for both teacher and students. All handouts, both teacher created and those from other resources, are referenced in the procedures and attached to the lesson plan. Introduction Little or no attempt to gather students’ attention and/or set a purpose for the lesson Inadequate attempt to gather students’ attention and/or set a purpose for the lesson Introduces the lesson by sharing purpose, relevance, and eliciting schema in student friendly language; partially states what the teacher will say Introduces the lesson by sharing purpose, relevance, and eliciting schema in student friendly language; fully states what the teacher will say Performance Expectations Beginning 1 Developing 2 Proficient 3 Exemplary 4 Rubric Score Procedures Lesson plan has no match between procedures and objectives; no modeling; no evidence for guided or independent practice; plan missing necessary details for teacher’s actions Lesson plan has limited match between pr ocedures and objectives; limited teacher modeling or examples provided; few opportunities for guided & independent practice; plan missing necessary details for teacher’s actions Lesson plan has clear match between procedures and objectives; adequate teache r modeling or examples provided; some opportunities for guided & independent practice; sufficiently details teacher’s actions step -by -step in first person Lesson plan has explicit match between procedures and objectives; multiple teacher modeling or exampl es provided; with opportunities for guided & independent practice; thoroughly details teacher’s actions in first person Assessment (Formative & Summative) No assessment provided for the lesson, or assessment does not measure objectives Assessment provided for the lesson but inaccurately measures the objectives Formative and/or summative assessments have clear relationship to the lesson objectives Formative and summative assessments are defined, showing clear relationship to all objectives addressed in the lesson Closure Lesson ends without review; limited to clean -up and/or transition to next activity Lesson ends with limited review; focus on clean -up rather than student learning Teacher reviews lesson by summarizing and/or reviewing what was ta ught; some student engagement Students review the lesson by summarizing and/or sharing what they learned; teacher revisits the purpose for the lesson Accommodations & Differentiation Superficial or little attempt to differentiate Differentiation is not linked to learner characteristics Differentiation is linked to individual learner characteristics with adequate detail Anticipates and plans ahead for any necessary class -wide differentiation Professional Writing Poor quality of professional writing is evidenced by 8 or more errors in clarity of writing, spelling, usage &/or grammar Fair quality of professional writing is evidenced by 5 -7 errors in clarity of writing, spelling, usage &/or grammar Professional writing is evidenced by 1 -4 errors in clarity of writing, spelling, usage &/or grammar Professional attention to formal writing is evidenced by clarity in writing as well as absence of spelling, usage and grammatical errors Note: A “3” in each category is considered “proficient” toward meeting course proficiencies. By the end of the course, you must demonstrate proficiency in writing lesson plans.

  
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