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Hi this a Foundation logical Reasoning class.Thanks
Hi this a Foundation logical Reasoning class. Thanks
Question 3 Select the argument below that has the following map:  ①           ②                 ③  └───┘               ↘︎       ↙︎                      ④ ① Juanita is hosting a dinner party. ② If she hosts a dinner party, she likes to employ a private company to do the cooking. ③ I saw a truck from the catering company Chef’s Table parked outside Juanita’s building. So, ④ we’ve got reason to think that Juanita has hired caterers.  ① Dentists recommend that you brush your teeth twice a day. ② Scientists have confirmed that brushing your teeth effectively reduces the threat of gum disease. ③ Everyone should brush their teeth regularly. ④ Dentists are experts on dental health. ① Most video games that can be played on smart phones are challenging ways to spend an afternoon. ② Candy Crush is a video game. So ③ Candy Crush is a challenging way to spend an afternoon. That’s because ④ Candy Crush can be played on a smart phone. ① Neville the cat naps whenever he feels safe. ② This afternoon, Neville the cat feels safe. So ③ Neville the cat is probably napping. So, ④ Rex the dog is probably not bothering him. ① Cleaning one’s car is the worst chore to complete. ② Pip’s car is dirty. ③ Pip has the worst chore to complete. ④ Pip is, therefore, pretty miserable.  Question 4 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①               ④  ↓                  ↓ ②               ③    ↘︎       ↙︎         ⑤ ① It’s morally acceptable for humans to eat anything that tastes good to us. So ② if meat tastes good to us, it’s morally acceptable for us to eat it. ③ Meat tastes good to us. That’s because ④ it contains complex proteins. So, ⑤ it’s morally acceptable for humans to eat meat.  ① Astronomers study great cosmic events that cannot be repeated. So ② astronomy is a science that does not depend upon repeatable experiments. And ③ the science of botany does not rely upon repeatable experiments either. ④ Botanists work to discover, identify, and classify the various plant species on Earth. So ⑤ there are at least some sciences don’t depend upon experimentation.  ① The plays that William Shakespeare wrote, such as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ② That is the reason that many students must read his plays as part of their high school curriculum. ③ The novels of Virginia Woolf, such as The Waves, Mrs. Galloway, and A Room of One’s Own, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ④ That is the reason that many students must read her novels as part of their high school curriculum. ⑤ One function of high school education is to introduce students to cultural masterpieces. ① The law of gravity can be broken. ② Only those who believe in miracles believe that the law of gravity may be broken. ③ If I drop this ball and it floats into the sky, the law of gravity would be broken. ④ I drop this ball and it floats into the sky. So, ⑤ I must believe in miracles. ① The criminals who burgled the mansion last night either came in through the upstairs window, or else the basement. ② There were unusual footprints near the basement, and the upstairs window was left open. ③ The criminals must have left the same way that they entered. ④ There is only one set of footprints leading up to the basement. So, ⑤ the crimi Question 5 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①         ③ └──┘        ↓       ⑤       ④      └──┘             ↓            ②  ① If all actions in the universe are predetermined, then human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. But then, ultimately, it follows that ② we shouldn’t hold people responsible for their actions. After all, ③ science tells us that all actions in the universe are predetermined. And of course, ④ we should only hold people responsible for their actions if they have freedom to act as they wish. And ⑤ we now know that human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. ① If all things that currently exist might not have existed, then it is possible that at some point nothing will exist. But ② it is impossible that at some point nothing will exist. For ③ if there is a time where nothing exists, it would follow that nothing can exist now. Yet ④ I certainly exist now. So, ⑤ there must be something existing now that could not have not existed, namely God.   ① Death is either an annihilation in which we have no consciousness at all, or else it is a migration of the soul to another place. ② Yet in either case, it is not something to fear. ③ We should not fear annihilation. ④ It would be like a sound and dreamless sleep. And ⑤ nor should we fear the migration of the soul to another place.  ① If God were all-powerful, then either he could create a rock that he cannot move, or he couldn’t create a rock that he cannot move. So it turns out that ② God is not all-powerful. For ③ if he can create a rock that he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, move the rock!). So ④ if God is all-powerful, he cannot create a rock he cannot move. But ⑤ if he cannot create a rock he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, create the rock!) ① If God is all-knowing, then God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ② If God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow, then it is futile for me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ③ My fitness trainer wants me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. So ④ it is futile to do what my fitness trainer wants me to do. After all, ⑤ God is all-knowing. Select the argument below that has the following map: Question 6 ①         ②        ③  └──────┘               ↓              ④ ① Marriage is an institution that deserves governmental support and social respect. ② It creates jobs for hundreds of people working in the bridal industry. ③ It makes those who are married happy. And ④ it serves to encode a preference for monogamous coupling in our social fabric. ① Only US citizens who were citizens from birth may run run for the office of US President. ② Only US citizens who were citizens from birth may run for the office of Vice President. ③ Mary is considering running for office in the US. So ④ if Mary was not a citizen from birth, she may not run for the office of US President. ① Each of the patients suffering from the illness recently ate strawberries that came from California. ② E. coli bacteria are known are known to cause the illness. So ③ the strawberries are probably infected with E. coli. ④ The strawberries should therefore be recalled from grocery stores. ① If both the standard of living and the life expectancy rate have increased in the last one hundred years, we have reason to think that civilization is moving in the right direction. ② The standard of living has increased in the last one hundred years. And ③ the life expectancy rate has increased in that period, too. So all in all, ④ we have reason to think that civilization is moving in the right direction. ① If I were out of gas, my car would not run. And ② if I were not out of gas, my car would run. ③ Either I’m out of gas, or I’m not out of gas. So, ④ I should probably see a mechanic. Question 7 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①        ②         ③             ④ └──────┘     ↘︎            ↙︎             ⑤ ① Grandma gets grumpy whenever she’s around loud noises. And ② the baby just started crying. ③ Grandma also gets grumpy when she’s not feeling well. And ④ she’s still not over the flu from last weekend. So ⑤ Grandma is probably grumpy.  ① If he doesn’t answer my texts, he probably doesn’t like me. ② He doesn’t answer my texts. So ③ he probably doesn’t like me. ④ If he doesn’t like me, I should stop texting him. So all in all, ⑤ I should stop texting him.  ① If Col. Mustard and Mr. Green are innocent, Mrs. Peacock is the murderer. ② Col. Mustard has a pretty good alibi. ③ Mr. Green had no motive. And remember, ④ Mrs. Peacock’s fingerprints were found on the murder weapon. ⑤ Mrs. Peacock is the murderer.   ① The city is planning to repair the railway tracks on this line every weekend until Christmas. ② Whenever the railway tracks are being repaired, there are substantial delays. ③ When there are substantial delays on the railway, it takes us over two hours to get into the city. ④ We’ll take the train into the city next weekend. So ⑤ it will take us over two hours.  ① If there are pawprints in the butter, we have a rat problem. ② If we have a rat problem, we should look for another apartment. ③ There are pawprints in the butter. ④ We should look for another apartment. Also, ⑤ don’t eat that butter. Question 8 Consider the following argument:  ① Kant was overly obsessive about his daily schedule. Additionally, ② his ethical framework is impractical. Thus, ③ I shouldn’t have to read his work in class.  What is the correct map for this argument? ①                ②        ↘       ↙           ③  ①           ↓   ②         ↓  ③  ①               ③  └───────┘            ↓          ② ①               ② └───────┘           ↓         ③  ②           ↓   ①         ↓  ③        Question 9 Consider the following argument: ① Capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. ② In those states which have abolished the death penalty, the rate of incidence for serious crimes is lower than in those which have retained it. ③ Besides, capital punishment is a barbaric practice, one which has no place in any society which calls itself “civilized.” What is the correct map for this argument?  ②                 ③             ↘       ↙            ①            ①            ③   └──────┘         ↓        ②  ①                ③             ↘       ↙            ②               ①                ②             ↘       ↙            ③                 ②            ③   └──────┘         ↓        ①   Question 10 Consider the following argument: ① Marx objects to social practices, like religion, that keeps people distracted from their material conditions. ② Marvel movies keep millions of people distracted for hours at a time. ③ Between ticket sales, tie-in comics and merchandise, digital and DVD copies, the studio has made billions of dollars in profits. ④ As a result, they have been able to make more movies and distract more people. So ⑤ Marx would object to Marvel movies. Which is the correct map for this argument? ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②              ①              ↘       ↙                    ⑤ ③  ↓ ④  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②       ①            └──┘                  ↓                 ⑤ ①           ②    ③    ④               └──────┘         ↘       ↙              ⑤   ④  ↓ ③  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ Question 11 Consider the following argument: ① Thomas Jefferson had a profound effect upon America. ② He drafted the Declaration of Independence. ③ He also served as ambassador to France during a crucial period in the country’s history. And ④ he negotiated the Louisiana purchase. What is the correct map for this argument? ②    ③   ④ └───┘         ↓        ①  ①          ②         ③         ↘     ↓     ↙              ④                   ④      ↓      ②         ③     └───┘              ↓            ① ②          ③          ④              ↘     ↓     ↙             ①                 ①    ②    ③  └───┘         ↓        ④ 1 points    Question 12 Consider the following argument:  ① Observers will be able to spot Halley’s Comet in the sky in 2061. ② It hurtles past Earth at about 2000mph every 75 or 76 years. And ③ it was last spotted in 1986. ④ Astronomers believe that the comet was pulled into its stable trajectory by the gravity of the giant outer planets. What is the correct map for this argument?    ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①                 ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ①               Question 13 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑤? It is an independent premise that supports ③ It is a joint premise that, together with ⑥, supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, togeher with ①, supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑦ It is an independent premise that supports ⑥ Question 14 Consider the following argument: ① Salt is required for every recipe in this cookbook. ② My dad wants me to cook a meal for his 70th birthday. ③ My dad’s doctor has told him to cut salt out of his diet. ④ If I cook my dad a recipe from this cookbook, his doctor will be mad. So ⑤ I can’t cook a recipe from this cookbook. After all, ⑥ I don’t want my dad’s doctor to be mad. ⑦ I need to get a new cookbook before my dad’s 70th birthday. In a map of this argument, what is the role of ⑦? It is the conclusion of the argument It is an independent premise that supports ② It is a joint premise that, together with ②, supports ⑤ It is an independent premise that supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ⑤, supports ② Question 15 Consider the following argument: ① People are allowed to vote when they turn 18. ② Males aged 18 are eligible for the draft. ③ 18-year-olds are considered old enough to have important responsibilities. ④ Being able to drink alcoholic beverages is an important responsibility. ⑤ The age at which one can legally drink should therefore be lowered. ⑥ For the current legal drinking age is 21. In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑥? It is a joint premise that, together with ③ and ④, supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, and ④, supports ⑤ It is an independent premise that supports ⑤ It is the conclusion of the argument It is a joint premise that, together with ③, supports ④
Hi this a Foundation logical Reasoning class. Thanks
Question 1 An intermediate premise is a premise that is identical to the conclusion of the argument.  True  False Question 2 An intermediate premise is a premise that is supported by another premise.  True  False 1 points    Question 3 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①          ②           ④   └───────┘                ↓               ③ ① If Huey sees a ghost tonight at the old hotel and he’s there all by himself, he’ll scream and run for the hills. ② Huey is at the old hotel by himself tonight. So, ③ he’ll scream and run for the hills. For ④ he sees a ghost.  ① If Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower, they’ll get into an argument about Marcus. ② If they get into an argument about Marcus, the bride will run to her bedroom and cry. ③ Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower. Hence, ④ the bride runs to her bedroom and cries. ① It will storm this evening. ② Whenever we three meet in the woods, it storms. ③ We’ll meet in the woods this evening. So, ④ we’re certain to get drenched in the downpour.  ① I need to have a computer with a webcam to take classes remotely this semester. ② The Apple Mac Pro has a webcam. ③ The Google Pixelbook has one too. So ④ I should either buy an Apple Mac Pro, or a Google Pixelbook. ① We should buy tickets to go to the opera if it would make Granddad happy. ② It would make Granddad happy to go to the opera. So ③ we should buy tickets to go to the opera. ④ The Marriage of Figaro is playing downtown next summer. 1 points    Question 4 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①        ②         ③             ④ └──────┘     ↘︎            ↙︎             ⑤ ① If there are pawprints in the butter, we have a rat problem. ② If we have a rat problem, we should look for another apartment. ③ There are pawprints in the butter. ④ We should look for another apartment. Also, ⑤ don’t eat that butter. ① Grandma gets grumpy whenever she’s around loud noises. And ② the baby just started crying. ③ Grandma also gets grumpy when she’s not feeling well. And ④ she’s still not over the flu from last weekend. So ⑤ Grandma is probably grumpy.  ① If he doesn’t answer my texts, he probably doesn’t like me. ② He doesn’t answer my texts. So ③ he probably doesn’t like me. ④ If he doesn’t like me, I should stop texting him. So all in all, ⑤ I should stop texting him.  ① The city is planning to repair the railway tracks on this line every weekend until Christmas. ② Whenever the railway tracks are being repaired, there are substantial delays. ③ When there are substantial delays on the railway, it takes us over two hours to get into the city. ④ We’ll take the train into the city next weekend. So ⑤ it will take us over two hours.  ① If Col. Mustard and Mr. Green are innocent, Mrs. Peacock is the murderer. ② Col. Mustard has a pretty good alibi. ③ Mr. Green had no motive. And remember, ④ Mrs. Peacock’s fingerprints were found on the murder weapon. ⑤ Mrs. Peacock is the murderer.   Question 5 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①         ③ └──┘        ↓       ⑤       ④      └──┘             ↓            ②  ① If God were all-powerful, then either he could create a rock that he cannot move, or he couldn’t create a rock that he cannot move. So it turns out that ② God is not all-powerful. For ③ if he can create a rock that he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, move the rock!). So ④ if God is all-powerful, he cannot create a rock he cannot move. But ⑤ if he cannot create a rock he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, create the rock!) ① If all things that currently exist might not have existed, then it is possible that at some point nothing will exist. But ② it is impossible that at some point nothing will exist. For ③ if there is a time where nothing exists, it would follow that nothing can exist now. Yet ④ I certainly exist now. So, ⑤ there must be something existing now that could not have not existed, namely God.   ① If God is all-knowing, then God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ② If God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow, then it is futile for me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ③ My fitness trainer wants me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. So ④ it is futile to do what my fitness trainer wants me to do. After all, ⑤ God is all-knowing. ① If all actions in the universe are predetermined, then human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. But then, ultimately, it follows that ② we shouldn’t hold people responsible for their actions. After all, ③ science tells us that all actions in the universe are predetermined. And of course, ④ we should only hold people responsible for their actions if they have freedom to act as they wish. And ⑤ we now know that human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. ① Death is either an annihilation in which we have no consciousness at all, or else it is a migration of the soul to another place. ② Yet in either case, it is not something to fear. ③ We should not fear annihilation. ④ It would be like a sound and dreamless sleep. And ⑤ nor should we fear the migration of the soul to another place.  Question 6 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①               ④  ↓                  ↓ ②               ③    ↘︎       ↙︎         ⑤ ① The law of gravity can be broken. ② Only those who believe in miracles believe that the law of gravity may be broken. ③ If I drop this ball and it floats into the sky, the law of gravity would be broken. ④ I drop this ball and it floats into the sky. So, ⑤ I must believe in miracles. ① It’s morally acceptable for humans to eat anything that tastes good to us. So ② if meat tastes good to us, it’s morally acceptable for us to eat it. ③ Meat tastes good to us. That’s because ④ it contains complex proteins. So, ⑤ it’s morally acceptable for humans to eat meat.  ① Astronomers study great cosmic events that cannot be repeated. So ② astronomy is a science that does not depend upon repeatable experiments. And ③ the science of botany does not rely upon repeatable experiments either. ④ Botanists work to discover, identify, and classify the various plant species on Earth. So ⑤ there are at least some sciences don’t depend upon experimentation.  ① The plays that William Shakespeare wrote, such as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ② That is the reason that many students must read his plays as part of their high school curriculum. ③ The novels of Virginia Woolf, such as The Waves, Mrs. Galloway, and A Room of One’s Own, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ④ That is the reason that many students must read her novels as part of their high school curriculum. ⑤ One function of high school education is to introduce students to cultural masterpieces. ① The criminals who burgled the mansion last night either came in through the upstairs window, or else the basement. ② There were unusual footprints near the basement, and the upstairs window was left open. ③ The criminals must have left the same way that they entered. ④ There is only one set of footprints leading up to the basement. So, ⑤ the criminals must have entered through the upstairs window. Question 7 Select the argument below that has the following map: ④          ⑤  └───┘           ↓          ①          ③                └───┘                   ↓                  ② ① If Pierre lived in Paris for twenty years, he must speak French fluently. ② No one who can speak French fluently would take the course Elementary French I unless he or she wanted to get an easy “A”. And ③ Pierre did live in Paris for twenty years. Plus, ④ he’s taking Elementary French I. So, ⑤ he must be doing it to get an easy “A”. ① Pigs make great pets. ② They learn to do tricks as well as any dog can. ③ They can be house trained, too. And ④ they are affectionate, since they like to cuddle. And ⑤ if you get bored with them or they become unruly, you can eat them. ① I’m convinced that Mary deliberately hurt Jane. So, ② she ought to be punished. ③ Anyone who deliberately hurts someone should be punished. And ④ I saw Mary’s cruel expression when Jane fell down the stairs. ⑤ The only way she’d have that cruel expression is if she was intending to do harm.  ① The check is void unless it is cashed within 30 days. So ② you cannot cash this check. ③ For the date on the check is September 2, and it is now October 8. ④ The date on check is now void. ⑤ You cannot cash a check which is void.  ① Today is either Tuesday or Wednesday. However, ② it can’t be Wednesday. ③ The doctor’s office was open this morning and that office is always closed on Wednesday. Therefore, ④ today must be Tuesday. So, ⑤ tomorrow is Wednesday. Question 8 Consider the following argument:  ① Believing that God exists because one hopes He does is rationally justified, according to William James. ② Deciding to believe something is true on the basis of feeling is justified when there is no rational evidence against it. ③ There is no rational evidence against the existence of God.  ④ Deciding to believe in God based on the hope that He exists is to believe on the basis of feeling.  What is the correct map for this argument?    ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①                 ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① Question 9 Consider the following argument: ① Acting ethically requires that one not be a “serious” person, on Simone de Beauvoir’s view. ② She defines a “serious” person as someone who denies that they can act freely. ③ A person who does not think they can live freely does not feel responsible for their actions. So ④ Beauvoir’s “serious” people don’t feel responsible for what they do. And ⑤ feeling responsible for one’s actions is required if one is to act ethically.   What is the correct map for this arguent? ②                ③ └────┘          ↓         ④                ⑤               ↘     ↙                         ① ②           ③ └───┘        ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤                ↘     ↙                    ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤          └────┘                     ↓                    ①                  ②           ③                   └───┘                            ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① 1 points    Question 10 Consider the following argument:  ① Observers will be able to spot Halley’s Comet in the sky in 2061. ② It hurtles past Earth at about 2000mph every 75 or 76 years. And ③ it was last spotted in 1986. ④ Astronomers believe that the comet was pulled into its stable trajectory by the gravity of the giant outer planets. What is the correct map for this argument?    ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ①   ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①               ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① Question 11 Consider the following argument: ① Marx objects to social practices, like religion, that keeps people distracted from their material conditions. ② Marvel movies keep millions of people distracted for hours at a time. ③ Between ticket sales, tie-in comics and merchandise, digital and DVD copies, the studio has made billions of dollars in profits. ④ As a result, they have been able to make more movies and distract more people. So ⑤ Marx would object to Marvel movies. Which is the correct map for this argument? ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②       ①            └──┘                  ↓                 ⑤ ③  ↓ ④  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ④  ↓ ③  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②              ①              ↘       ↙                    ⑤ ①           ②    ③    ④               └──────┘         ↘       ↙              ⑤   Question 12 Consider the following argument:  ① In “Euthyphro,” it’s claimed that what is holy is loved by the gods either because it’s holy, or because the gods love it. ② It can’t be the case that it’s holy because the gods love it. ③ For then, what is holy would be arbitrary. So, ④ what is holy is what is loved by the gods because its holy.  What is the correct map for this argument? ①           ②            ③                 └──────┘       ↘       ↙            ④                                    ③                                                                                    ↓ ①             ② └───────┘          ↓          ④                  ②                                                                                 ↓ ①             ③ └───────┘          ↓          ④ ①  ↓ ②             ③ └───────┘             ↓           ④ ①          ②          ③                ↘     ↓     ↙                                                ④               Question 13 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑤? It is a joint premise that, togeher with ①, supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ⑥, supports ⑦ It is an independent premise that supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑥ Question 14 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of this argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that together with ①, ②, and ④ supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ②, supports ④ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, and ④, supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, ④, ⑤, and ⑥ supports ⑦  Question 15 Consider the following argument: ① We should not give in to the demands of terrorists. ② Giving in to their demands would convince them that their tactics work. ③ If terrorists are convinced that their tactics work, they will be encouraged to terrorize again in the future. ④ We do not want to encourage terrorists to terrorize.  In a map of the argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that, together with ① and ④, supports ② It is a joint premise that, together with ② and ④, supports ① It is a joint premise that, together with ① and ②, supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ②
Hi this a Foundation logical Reasoning class. Thanks
Question 3 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①               ④  ↓                  ↓ ②               ③    ↘︎       ↙︎         ⑤ ① The law of gravity can be broken. ② Only those who believe in miracles believe that the law of gravity may be broken. ③ If I drop this ball and it floats into the sky, the law of gravity would be broken. ④ I drop this ball and it floats into the sky. So, ⑤ I must believe in miracles. ① The criminals who burgled the mansion last night either came in through the upstairs window, or else the basement. ② There were unusual footprints near the basement, and the upstairs window was left open. ③ The criminals must have left the same way that they entered. ④ There is only one set of footprints leading up to the basement. So, ⑤ the criminals must have entered through the upstairs window. ① Astronomers study great cosmic events that cannot be repeated. So ② astronomy is a science that does not depend upon repeatable experiments. And ③ the science of botany does not rely upon repeatable experiments either. ④ Botanists work to discover, identify, and classify the various plant species on Earth. So ⑤ there are at least some sciences don’t depend upon experimentation.  ① The plays that William Shakespeare wrote, such as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ② That is the reason that many students must read his plays as part of their high school curriculum. ③ The novels of Virginia Woolf, such as The Waves, Mrs. Galloway, and A Room of One’s Own, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ④ That is the reason that many students must read her novels as part of their high school curriculum. ⑤ One function of high school education is to introduce students to cultural masterpieces. ① It’s morally acceptable for humans to eat anything that tastes good to us. So ② if meat tastes good to us, it’s morally acceptable for us to eat it. ③ Meat tastes good to us. That’s because ④ it contains complex proteins. So, ⑤ it’s morally acceptable for humans to eat meat.  1 points    Question 4 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①         ②        ③  └──────┘               ↓              ④ ① Each of the patients suffering from the illness recently ate strawberries that came from California. ② E. coli bacteria are known are known to cause the illness. So ③ the strawberries are probably infected with E. coli. ④ The strawberries should therefore be recalled from grocery stores. ① If both the standard of living and the life expectancy rate have increased in the last one hundred years, we have reason to think that civilization is moving in the right direction. ② The standard of living has increased in the last one hundred years. And ③ the life expectancy rate has increased in that period, too. So all in all, ④ we have reason to think that civilization is moving in the right direction. ① Marriage is an institution that deserves governmental support and social respect. ② It creates jobs for hundreds of people working in the bridal industry. ③ It makes those who are married happy. And ④ it serves to encode a preference for monogamous coupling in our social fabric. ① If I were out of gas, my car would not run. And ② if I were not out of gas, my car would run. ③ Either I’m out of gas, or I’m not out of gas. So, ④ I should probably see a mechanic. ① Only US citizens who were citizens from birth may run run for the office of US President. ② Only US citizens who were citizens from birth may run for the office of Vice President. ③ Mary is considering running for office in the US. So ④ if Mary was not a citizen from birth, she may not run for the office of US President. Question 5 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①         ③ └──┘        ↓       ⑤       ④      └──┘             ↓            ②  ① If God is all-knowing, then God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ② If God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow, then it is futile for me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ③ My fitness trainer wants me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. So ④ it is futile to do what my fitness trainer wants me to do. After all, ⑤ God is all-knowing. ① Death is either an annihilation in which we have no consciousness at all, or else it is a migration of the soul to another place. ② Yet in either case, it is not something to fear. ③ We should not fear annihilation. ④ It would be like a sound and dreamless sleep. And ⑤ nor should we fear the migration of the soul to another place.  ① If God were all-powerful, then either he could create a rock that he cannot move, or he couldn’t create a rock that he cannot move. So it turns out that ② God is not all-powerful. For ③ if he can create a rock that he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, move the rock!). So ④ if God is all-powerful, he cannot create a rock he cannot move. But ⑤ if he cannot create a rock he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, create the rock!) ① If all actions in the universe are predetermined, then human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. But then, ultimately, it follows that ② we shouldn’t hold people responsible for their actions. After all, ③ science tells us that all actions in the universe are predetermined. And of course, ④ we should only hold people responsible for their actions if they have freedom to act as they wish. And ⑤ we now know that human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. ① If all things that currently exist might not have existed, then it is possible that at some point nothing will exist. But ② it is impossible that at some point nothing will exist. For ③ if there is a time where nothing exists, it would follow that nothing can exist now. Yet ④ I certainly exist now. So, ⑤ there must be something existing now that could not have not existed, namely God.   Question 6 Select the argument below that has the following map: ②     ③      ④ └────┘           ↓          ①  ① All sound arguments are deductive. That’s because ② all sound arguments are valid. And ③ all valid arguments are deductive. ④ My logic professor told us that all sound argument are deductive, too. ① People who are extremely sarcastic are generally speaking quite insecure. ② A lot of insecure people feel inadequate. And ③ those who feel inadequate tend to be extremely sarcastic. So ④ if your sister is being sarcastic, it’s because she’s insecure. ① The only reason to think that there is life on other planets is if extraterrestrials traveled to our solar system. ② No extraterrestrial life has traveled to our solar system. ③ We lack the means of traveling to other solar systems. So, ④ there is no reason to think that there is life on other planets.  ① Questions cannot occur within an argument. That’s because ② arguments are made up of statements. ③ Questions are not statements. ④ Statements are sentences that are either true or false. ① That glass contains an alcoholic beverage. After all, ② it was either beer or cider that the barman poured into the glass. ③ Beer is an alcoholic beverage. And ④ cider is an alcoholic beverage, too. Question 7 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①          ②           ④   └───────┘                ↓               ③ ① If Huey sees a ghost tonight at the old hotel and he’s there all by himself, he’ll scream and run for the hills. ② Huey is at the old hotel by himself tonight. So, ③ he’ll scream and run for the hills. For ④ he sees a ghost.  ① If Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower, they’ll get into an argument about Marcus. ② If they get into an argument about Marcus, the bride will run to her bedroom and cry. ③ Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower. Hence, ④ the bride runs to her bedroom and cries. ① It will storm this evening. ② Whenever we three meet in the woods, it storms. ③ We’ll meet in the woods this evening. So, ④ we’re certain to get drenched in the downpour.  ① I need to have a computer with a webcam to take classes remotely this semester. ② The Apple Mac Pro has a webcam. ③ The Google Pixelbook has one too. So ④ I should either buy an Apple Mac Pro, or a Google Pixelbook. ① We should buy tickets to go to the opera if it would make Granddad happy. ② It would make Granddad happy to go to the opera. So ③ we should buy tickets to go to the opera. ④ The Marriage of Figaro is playing downtown next summer. 1 points    Question 8 Consider the following argument: ① Acting ethically requires that one not be a “serious” person, on Simone de Beauvoir’s view. ② She defines a “serious” person as someone who denies that they can act freely. ③ A person who does not think they can live freely does not feel responsible for their actions. So ④ Beauvoir’s “serious” people don’t feel responsible for what they do. And ⑤ feeling responsible for one’s actions is required if one is to act ethically.   What is the correct map for this arguent? ②           ③ └───┘        ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ①                  ②           ③                   └───┘                            ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤          └────┘                     ↓                    ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤                ↘     ↙                    ① ②                ③ └────┘          ↓         ④                ⑤               ↘     ↙                         ① Question 9 Consider the following argument:  ① Believing that God exists because one hopes He does is rationally justified, according to William James. ② Deciding to believe something is true on the basis of feeling is justified when there is no rational evidence against it. ③ There is no rational evidence against the existence of God.  ④ Deciding to believe in God based on the hope that He exists is to believe on the basis of feeling.  What is the correct map for this argument?    ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①               ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ①   ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① Question 10 Consider the following argument: ① Mark is majoring in education. I’m pretty sure, because ② he’s been in three of my education classes. Also, ③ he hangs out with a bunch of other education majors. ④ He went to careers services yesterday and asked a lot of questions about high school teaching. So I think ultimately ⑤ Mark wants to be a teacher. What is the correct map for this argument?  ①     ②    ③      ④   └──────┘                ↓               ⑤  ②           ③   ↘︎   ↙︎         ①           ④              ↘︎   ↙︎                 ⑤  ②           ③   ↘︎   ↙︎         ①            ④           └───┘                   ↓                  ⑤  ②         ③ └──┘           ↓          ①            ④           └───┘                   ↓                  ⑤  ②         ③ └──┘           ↓          ①            ④              ↘︎   ↙︎                 ⑤  Question 11 Consider the following argument:  ① Observers will be able to spot Halley’s Comet in the sky in 2061. ② It hurtles past Earth at about 2000mph every 75 or 76 years. And ③ it was last spotted in 1986. ④ Astronomers believe that the comet was pulled into its stable trajectory by the gravity of the giant outer planets. What is the correct map for this argument?  ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ①   ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①     ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①               Question 12 Consider the following argument: ① Thomas Jefferson had a profound effect upon America. ② He drafted the Declaration of Independence. ③ He also served as ambassador to France during a crucial period in the country’s history. And ④ he negotiated the Louisiana purchase. What is the correct map for this argument? ②          ③          ④              ↘     ↓     ↙             ①                 ①          ②         ③         ↘     ↓     ↙              ④               ②    ③   ④ └───┘         ↓        ①      ④      ↓      ②         ③     └───┘              ↓            ① ①    ②    ③  └───┘         ↓        ④ Question 13 Consider the following argument:  ① You should be careful asking a friend to keep a secret from their spouse. So ② think twice before you tell Marcus your innermost thoughts, on the promise that he won’t tell Tilly. ③ After all, Marcus and Tilly are married. ④ Marriage is a more intimate relationship than friendship. ⑤ One should be wary thinking that someone would compromise a more intimate relationship for the sake of a less intimate one.  In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑤? It is the conclusion of the argument It is an independent premise that supports ① It is a joint premise that, together with ③, supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ③ It is a joint premise that, together with ④, supports ① Question 14 Consider the following argument: ① People are allowed to vote when they turn 18. ② Males aged 18 are eligible for the draft. ③ 18-year-olds are considered old enough to have important responsibilities. ④ Being able to drink alcoholic beverages is an important responsibility. ⑤ The age at which one can legally drink should therefore be lowered. ⑥ For the current legal drinking age is 21. In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑥? It is a joint premise that, together with ③, supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ⑤ It is the conclusion of the argument It is a joint premise that, together with ③ and ④, supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, and ④, supports ⑤ Question 15 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of this argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, and ④, supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that together with ①, ②, and ④ supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, ④, ⑤, and ⑥ supports ⑦  It is a joint premise that, together with ②, supports ④

  
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