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In this assignment, you will use Microsoft PowerPoint to create a detailed presentation with a minimum of 10 slides on the impact that the Soviet Union had on global terrorism until its fall in 1991. Include the war between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan within your presentation.Secondly, you will also be required to discuss the change in global terrorism in modern-day Russia from 1991 to today. Include the current terrorist groups that target Russia as well as what led to their creation.Please be sure to add foot notes and commentary on each slide of your presentation. Your submission should also include photographs, graphs, charts, data analytics, and examples of terrorist attacks within the borders of Russia.You are required to use at least your textbook and two outside scholarly or government sources. All sources used, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced according to APA guidelines.Course Textbook: Terrorism and Homeland Security, 9th Edition by Johnathan R. WhitePlease follow the directives to the letter.
In this assignment, you will use Microsoft PowerPoint to create a detailed presentation with a minimum of 10 slides on the impact that the Soviet Union had on global terrorism until its fall in 1991.
MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 4. Appraise the effect of the Soviet Union’s downfall on world terrorism. 4.1 Examine the impact that the Soviet Union had on global terrorism until its fall in 1991, including the war with Afghanistan. 4.2 Identify events that led to the creation of terror ist groups in Afghanistan, such as Al Qaeda, because of the war conflict between these two nations. 4.3 Outline current terrorist groups that target Russia. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 4.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 8 Unit IV PowerPoint Presentation 4.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 8 Unit IV PowerPoint Presentation 4.3 Unit Lesson Chapter 8 Unit IV PowerPoint Presentation Reading Assignment Chapter 8 : Background to the Middle East Unit Lesson Introduction: History of the Soviet Union and Its Influence on Global Terrorism The Soviet Union, which is now Russia, has a very lengthy and , at times , tumultuous history. The Soviet Union was established after the 1917 Revolution on December 20, 1922. There were many events that took place from 1922 to the collapse of the Soviet Union on December 25, 19 91 ( Sakwa, 2005) . Timeline of Events Surrounding the Soviet Union 1922 to 1991 The Soviet Union existed for 69 years. In that time, there were many war conflicts, changes of power, invasions of nations, changes to economic policies, new constitutions added, and more. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, which led to nearly a decade of fighting, death, and destruction ( Sakwa, 2005) . As a result of this conflict, terrorist activity in Afghanistan began to rise as the Taliban had access to weaponry, military equipment, military facilities, emerging technologies, and other asset s left behind by the Soviet Union. It is important to understand the background and history of the Soviet Union to be able to appraise the effect of the Soviet Union’s downfall on world terrorism. UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE The Soviet Union (1991) and Russia’s Impact on Global Terrorism Today Soviet Union flags (Kabasinki, 2013) MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The Rise of the Soviet Union (1917 –1924) The rise of the Soviet Union took place from 1917 –1924 (Sakwa, 2005) . In that time, many events took place across this region of the globe , includ ing the Bolsheviks overthrowing the government of Russia, which led to the Treaty of Brest -Litovsk being created . The treaty allowed several nations in Europe to be freed from Russia and for the Soviet Union to begin its origination in the region. From 1920 –1921, the Soviet Union went to war with Poland, and it ended shortly after it started ( Sakwa, 2005) . Poland qu ickly surrendered to the Soviet Union, and new borders were created between the two nations. In the early times of the Soviet Union, a new term was created and implemented called war communism . W ar communism allowed the Soviet Union to take over and restru cture the national economy that was in place. This led to internal conflict within the Soviet Union , as many starved and died during the early rise of the Soviet Union due to the newly created communist practices. Terrorism impact: The former Soviet Unio n and Russia can be credited as one of the many birthplaces of terrorism. In the 19th century, nihilists used political violence to target the tsarist state and ruling classes of the era. As time moved forward, the Soviet Union actively supp orted acts of p olitical terrorism against opponents throughout the 69 years that the countr y maintained power ( Sakwa, 2005) . Joseph Stalin Gains Power of the Soviet Union During the 1930s (1924 –1933) Joseph Stalin came to power over the Soviet Union in 1924 and ruled u ntil 1953 when he died ( “Soviet Union Timeline ,” 2013). In that time, the Soviet Union became an industrial powerhouse and a military force to be reckoned with. W hen Stalin took over as dictator, he released a very aggressive strategic plan that would rebu ild the economy and country (in his eyes ). The economic plan immediately retracted the former war communist rules and regulations. Terrorism impact: The Great Terror was run by Stalin in the 1930s to eliminate certain members of the Communist Party. Thes e acts were considered state acts of terror at the time. He was able to eliminate all political opponents and began widespread arrests, trials, and , in some instances, executions of certain individuals. The Soviet Union and World War II (1939 –1945) The Soviet Union was involved in W orld War II from 1939 –1945 ( “Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). In that time, many events took place that started with Hitler and Stalin agreeing not to go to war with one another. It began with another war conflict with Poland an d resulted in Poland being divided between the Nazis and the Soviet Union. In 1940, the Soviet Union moved across Europe and took over several cou ntries, including Latvia (“Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). Germany did not stick to their agreement with the So viet Union and began a war conflict with the Soviets, which led to many deaths on both sides. World War II ended for the Soviets shortly after they declared war against the Japanese. Terrorism impact: The Soviet Union joined WWII in 1939 –1940 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland (“Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). Many historians state that the actions taken by the Soviet Union in Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia were considered unethical and immoral , leading to terror throughout Europe and in many other regions around the globe. In this timeframe, the Soviets made a solid agreement with Nazi Germany not to go to war. Hitler did not keep his word and reigned terror and a war conflict with the Soviet Un ion. The Soviets learned many new war tactics and strategies, which can be linked to modern -day global terrorism. The Soviet Union and Weapons of Mass Destruction (1949 –1959): Atomic Bombs and Hydrogen Bombs World War II ended in 1945 for the Soviets, an d it led Stalin and the Soviet regime to want to be able to protect themselves from any enemy that may come knocking on their door in the future: foreign or domestic. In 1949 , the Soviet Union detonated their first weapon of mass destruction (W MD s)—an atom ic bomb in Kazakhstan ( “Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). This completely changed the offensive and defensive tactics of the Soviet Union moving forward. Stalin and his nuclear scientists continued research and development efforts to strengthen the power of t heir WMD s arsenal. In 1953 —the same year that Stalin died, the Soviets detonated their first hydrogen bomb in the Siberian arctic tundra. MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Terrorism impact: This timeframe permitted the Soviet Union to begin development of WMD s. There were many concerns a bout how the Soviet Union was going to use nuclear weapons and hydrogen -based bombs in warfare and for defensive purposes (Arnold & Wiener, 2012). Further, there were global concerns about the treaty signed between the Soviet Union and China. Was this a pa rt of a nuclear alliance? How would this affect multination relationships? Would the Soviet Union detonate a W MD in an act of terrorism? Each of these questions was posed by the United States and many other nations at the time when the Soviet Union was com pleting testing in Siberia. The Soviet Union and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1960 –1964) The early 1960s was a very stressful time for the United States and for the global community. The United States and its allies felt the tension of Russia as they contin ued to develop their nuclear arsenal and ballistic missile capabilities. This was a time when the United States was spying on the Soviet Union , and the Soviet Union was actively spying on the United States. This was also a time when tensions were so high b etween both nations that children in K –12 were conducting WMD s drills in school. Reflect on this point: Can you imagine as a seven -year -old first grader having to hide under your desk for a potential incoming nuclear detonation? How scared would you be? Wh at would go through your mind? This is what the Cold W ar era felt like for every citizen in the United States. Do you see any parallels to active shooter drills that occur in schools today? Terrorism impact: The United States and global community discovered a hidden arsenal of missiles off the coast of Miami, Florida. Many nations around the world were wondering what the Soviet Union’s intentions were. Would they begin World W ar III for no reason at all? How w ould these events terrorize the United States and the global community? Czechoslovakian War Conflict and the Invasion of Afghanistan The late 1960s through the mid -1980s were very trying times for the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union continued to start wa r conflicts because other nations did not support their internal communist beliefs. The Soviets believed that communism would be the modern -day way of ruling a government globally. The Soviets could not understand why many other nations would not appreciat e their way of government ruling, national economy, and cultural beliefs. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and the war conflict las ted nearly 10 years ( “Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). In that time, thousands of soldiers on both sides perished as well as many civilians. In addition, t he war led to the rise of the Taliban. Terrorism impact: The Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968 and Afghanistan in 19 79 (Reuveny & Prakash, 1999). The initial invasion into Czechoslovakia was based on the government practices of the nation. The Soviet Union disagreed with their political views and embraced war and , to some nations, acts of terrorism because their government practices violated communist beliefs. Collapse of the Soviet Union (1985 –19 91) From 1985 –1991, many negative events took place in the Soviet Union that would eventually lead to its collapse in 1991 ( “Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). Events that took place ranged from the nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl to the ethnic mass killings th at took place between the Armenians and Azeris. One of the most significant events of this time was the 1989 collapse of the Berlin Wall, which had separated Berlin into a communist side on the east end of the city and a democratic side on the west end of the city ( “Soviet Union Timeline,” 2013 ). Terrorism impact: The collapse of the Soviet Union changed the global landscape in many ways. After the war in Afghanistan, the Soviets left many weapons, artillery, tanks, and military equipment behind. The Taliban and other terrorist organizations in Afghanistan used th ose weapons and military equipment to reinforce their terrorist cells. Supreme Court of the Russian Federation: Unified Federal List of Terrorist Organizations The U.S. Department of State maintains an active list of state sponsors of terrorism on their website. Russia also has its own Unified Federal List of Organizations, including foreign and international organizations recognized as terrorist organizations against the Russian Federation. The list is typically updated annually by MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation , which is similar to the U.S. Supreme Court. It is considered the final recourse in judicial activity for administrative law, civil law, and all crim inal law cases. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation was created after the fall of the Soviet Union and consists of 115 members. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation meets four times per year, which is why the list below is not updated often. This list of terrorist groups is called the Unified F ederal List of Organizations . Below you will find a list of several terrorist organizations that pose a direct threat and impact to modern -day Russia. Please note that there are more than 27 terrorist organizations on the Unified F ederal List of Organizations . The list outlined below is a summary of the top threats to Russia and not a complete list. Terrorist Organization # 1: Congress of the peoples of Ichkeria and Dagestan  Background : This terrorist organization dates back to 1998 and is considered to be a group of radical Islamists. The organization is led by Movladi Udugov and has somewhat gone underground in recent years after an attempt to merge Chech nya with a neighboring nation to create a single government (Abbas, 2003).  Impact on modern -day Russia : This group has a significant impact on Russia because they existed physically, but their specific whereabouts were always unknown. Further, the structure of their organization, tacti cs, and motivations were unclear, making it very difficult for Russian police and military forces to target (Abbas, 2003) . This group h ad a large impact in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Terrorist Organization # 2: Al Qaeda  Background: This terrorist organization was established in 19 88 and was originally led by Osama bin Laden until he was killed by U .S. Navy Seals in 2011 ( Ibrahimi, 2018). The United States launched a war against Al Qaeda in 2001 after the 9/11 attacks.  Impact on modern -day Russia: Russia has stated that Al Qaeda and ISIS are beginning to merge in certain areas of the country. Further, Russia claims that Al Qaeda has sleeper cells within the regions and provinces of Russia ( Ibrahimi, 2018). Al Qaeda wishes to target the political and religious ideologies of Russia and similar nations. Russia has stated in the past that they have always partnered with allies and the United Nations (UN) to combat terrorism. Al Qaeda is against any nation that does not support their views and ideologies ( Ibrahimi, 2018). Terrorist Organization # 3: Holy War (“Al -Jihad” or “Egyptian Islamic Jihad”)  Background: This terrorist organization has been around since the mid – to late 1970s and originated in Egypt. The overall objective of the Egyptian Islamic Jiha d is to overthrow the existing government in Egypt and to replace it with the Islamic Jihad ( Adraoui, 2017) . Th e objective of the Islamic Jihad is simply to destroy the State of Israel and to establish its own independent Islamic Palestine state. This terrorist organization has also attacked Israeli and U.S. interests in Egypt and in other countries.  Impact on modern -day Russia: This terrorist organization has targeted infrastructures from many nations around the globe , includ ing embassies s uch as the Albanian embassy in 1998. Egyptian counterterrorism groups have worked with nations such as Russia to stop the growth of this terrorist organization into other nation s ( Adraoui, 2017) . Terrorist Organization # 4: Taliban  Background: The Taliban have been around since the late 1970s when the Soviet Union went to war in Afghanistan ( Johnson, 2018) . When the war ended, the Taliban regrouped in 1996 and took over many provinces and regional areas of Afghanistan until 2001 when the United States laun ched the War on Terror. The Taliban is currently led by Mullah Haibatullah Akhundzada. This terrorist organization was known for performing mass genocide in Afghanistan villages across the country. The Taliban’s interpretation of Sharia Law is much differe nt from that of other Islamic fundamentalists in Afghanistan and globally . It is a common misconception that Al Qaeda and the Taliban are the same terrorist organization. Many Taliban fighters fought under Osama bin Laden shortly after the War on Terror be gan in 2001 ( Johnson, 2018) .  Impact on modern -day Russia: Russia and the former Soviet Union have been battling the Taliban for many years. As outlined above, the Taliban fought the Soviet Union in the 1980s. When the Soviet MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Union collapsed, Russia took a new stand against Afghanistan and the Taliban ( Johnson, 2018) . Russia does not support the actions of the Taliban and is considered a direct enemy of the Taliban. Terrorist Organization # 5: ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant )  Background : This group was founded in 1999 and is led by Abu Bakr Al -Baghdadi (Yeşiltaş & Kardaş, 2018) . ISIS primarily operates and runs global operations out of Syria. ISIS continues to grow as the United States and allied forces fight to eliminate the organization. In 2014 , this terrorist organization gained worldwide notoriety when they took over several villages, cities, and provinces in Iraq ( Yeşiltaş & Kardaş, 2018) . They are heavily organized, funded, and supported by hundreds of thousands of individuals across the globe. ISIS is known for kidnappings, beheadings, and other violent acts of terrorism. Further, ISIS has a strong presence on the Internet, social media, multimedia websites, and the Dark Web. Thousands of individuals have been radicalized by this terrorist organization , and many of these individuals have carried out lone wolf terrorist attacks globally ( Yeşiltaş & Kardaş, 2018) .  Impact on modern -day Russia: Russia has taken an active role in the Syrian civil war and in other Middle East conflicts over the past decade. Russia has also launched a direct fight against ISIS and global jihadist groups to keep terrorism from infiltrating the borders of their nation. Further, in recent times , the United States has requested additional help from its allies in countering ISIS in the Middle East, Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The list above outlines several terrorist organizations that not only impact Russia but many countries around the world that support W estern values and civilization. As you can see, Al Qaeda, ISIS , and the Taliban are terrorist organizations that focus their efforts on specific targets within the borders of Russia. Russia is working independently and with its allies to coun ter these terrorist organizations on a daily, monthly, and annual basis. References Abbas, H. (2003, February 27). U.S. State Department adds Chechen groups to official list of terrorists. North Caucasus Weekly, 4 (6). Retrieved from https://jamestown.org/program/u -s-state -department -adds – chechen -groups -to-official -list -of-terrorists/ Adraoui, M. -A. (2017). Borders and sovereignty in Islamist and jihadist thought: Past and present. International Affairs, 93 (4), 917 –935. Arnold, J. R., & W iener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide . Santa Barbara, CA: ABC – CLIO. Ibrahimi, S. Y. (2018). Theory of the rise of al -Qaeda. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 10 (2), 138 –157. Johnson, T. H. (with DuPee, M., & Shaaker, W.). (2018). Taliban narratives: The use and power of stories in the Afghanistan conflict. New York, NY: Oxford University. Kabasinki. (2013). Soviet union flags , ID 39373115 [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.dream stime.com/royalty -free -stock -photo -soviet -union -flags -blue -skies -image39373115 Reuveny, R., & Prakash, A. (1999). The Afghanistan war and the breakdown of the Soviet Union. Review of International Studies, 25 (4), 693 –708. Sakwa, R. (2005). The rise and f all of the Soviet Union, 1917 –1991 . New York, NY: Routledge. Map of Syria (Vam py1, n.d.) MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Soviet Union timeline. (2013, October 31). Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world -europe -17858981 Vampy1. (n.d.). Map of Syria , ID 32789464 [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.dreamstime.com/stock – images -map -syria -hand -drawn -neighboring -countries -image32789464 Yeşiltaş , M., & Kardaş, T. (2018). The new Middle East, ISIL and the 6th revolt against the West. In M. Yeşiltaş & T. Kardaş (Eds.), Non -state armed actors in the Middle East: Geopolitics, ideology, and strategy (pp. 147 –167). Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. Learning Activities (Nong raded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Research a terrorist attack listed on the web page below . Foreign travel advice, Russia : Terrorism . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/foreign -travel – advice/russia/terrorism Then, consider how the attack happened within the borders of Russia from 2011 –2017 by answering the three questions below. 1. What terrorist groups was responsible? 2. What motives were behind the attack? 3. How do these terrorist attacks compare to those events that took place before the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991?

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