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Discuss the interactive forces that affect development (genes, psychological and social). Which one do you think plays a greater role in development? Support your response 
Identify and describe the four stages of cognitive development by Piaget. Do you perceive this stage theory to be accurate based on our understanding of cognition today? What modifications do you think might apply to this theory now?

Define attachment and discuss the various attachment styles studied by Ainsworth. Do you agree with this perspective on attachment? Why or why not?
Identify and describe the four parenting styles and their effect on child outcomes. Do you agree with this perspective on parenting styles? Why or why not?
Identify and describe the three stages of moral development by Kholberg. Do you believe that this approach to understanding morality still applies to contemporary society? 
Identify and describe the eight stages of psycho-social development by Erikson. What is your opinion of this unique theoretical approach to understanding the process of development? What changes would you make if you were responsible for modifying this theory?
Identify and describe the five stages of death and dying by Kubler-Ross. Do you believe that this theory has relevance beyond the process of death? Discuss how this theory might apply to loss in general, and how this might provide us with some sense of comfort when dealing with the impact of loss
part2:
Please contribute something helpful, beneficial and/or interesting that you have found related to the topic of life-span development. Youtube video links, online articles, and other relevant materials are acceptableDiscovering
Psychology
4th Edition
Chapter 11:
The Developing Mind
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter Objectives (1 of 2)
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Evaluate the evidence for sensory capacities, preferences, and
reflexes in newborn infants.
Identify major physical, cognitive, and social/ emotional differences
among the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and
adulthood, and give examples of ways in which these three
trajectories influence one another.
Differentiate Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development:
sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational
stage and formal operational stage.
Critique Piaget’s theory using research from alternate approaches.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter Objectives (2 of 2)
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Debate the adaptive function of infant attachment, and
analyze the roles of temperament, culture, and
parenting in driving individual attachment styles.
Identify epigenetic processes, critical or sensitive periods, and
the impact of experience on biological development.
Debate the research evidence for continuity versus
discontinuity in the trajectories of physical, cognitive,
and social/emotional development.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Prenatal Changes (1 of 3)
• Zygote:
• First 2 weeks of gestational period
• Zygote moves through fallopian tube to the uterus,
where it implants in the lining
• Differentiates into three germ layers:
• Ectoderm: Develops into nerve tissue and skin
• Mesoderm: Develops into muscle and bone
• Endoderm: Source of soft tissues such as organs
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Prenatal Changes (2 of 3)
• Embryo:
• Gestational weeks 3 through 8
• Gestational week 4: Central nervous system differentiates
into forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord
• Gestational week 6: Expression of a gene on the Y
chromosome initiates generic gonads into testes in males
while alternative genes guide development of ovaries in
females
• Gestational week 7: Cells that will form the cerebral cortex
begin to move to ultimate destination
• Heart, stomach, liver, and other organs form
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Prenatal Changes (3 of 3)
• Fetus:
• Term used for the remainder of the pregnancy
• Gestational month 3: Generic internal reproductive
organs differentiate
• New neurons formed
• Gestational month 6: Myelination of nervous system
• Most pregnancies last about 40 weeks, and 37 to 42 are
considered typical
• Premature infants are at greater risk for conditions that
affect lifetime health and development, such as
disorders of lungs, vision, and development of the brain
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Fetal Development
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Risks to Development (1 of 2)
• Down syndrome:
• Child receives a full or partial third copy of the 21st chromosome
because of faulty cell division
• More common as maternal age increases
• Teratogen:
• Chemical agent that can harm the zygote, embryo, or fetus
• Includes prescription and over-the counter medications including
acetaminophen (Tylenol)
• Recreational drugs are the most common and preventable
sources of adverse effects. Includes tobacco, alcohol, opioids,
among others
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Risks from Teratogens
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Risks to Development (2 of 2)
• Fetal alcohol syndrome:
• Produces several physical abnormalities, including:
• Growth retardation
• Skin folds at corners of the eyes, nose, and mouth
abnormalities
• Small head circumference
• Cognitive and behavioral problems
• Reduced IQ
• Attention problems
• Poor impulse control
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Poll
How much alcohol is safe to consume at one time during
pregnancy?
A. None
B. One drink
C. Two drinks
D. Depends on the type of alcohol
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Poll: Answer
How much alcohol is safe to consume at one time during
pregnancy?
A. None
No known amount of alcohol consumption is considered safe
during pregnancy, yet about 10% of pregnant women in the
United States drink some alcohol, and about 3.9% binge drink
or have five or more drinks at one time. Drinking during
pregnancy can result in FAS, which produces (a) characteristic
facial features, (b) reduced brain volume compared to a
typically developing fetus, and (c) attentional and other
behavioral problems in children.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
What Newborns Can Do
• Newborns have a number of reflexive behaviors that
begin to operate immediately:
• Turn their head to source of a touch
• Open their mouth
• Search for the mother’s nipple (rooting reflex)
• Suck on objects placed in the mouth
• Grasp any object placed in the hand
• Stepping reflex
• Activity:
• Sleep 16 to 18 hours per day
• Alert looking
• Physical movement of arms and legs
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Newborn Sex and Gender Development
• Sex:
• Based on XX or XY genotype
• Gender:
• Maleness–femaleness continuum
• Variation in sex chromosomes occur about once in every 426
births
• Turner syndrome: Single X chromosome and phenotypically
female
• Klinefelter syndrome: Two X chromosomes and one Y
chromosome and phenotypically male
• Jacob syndrome: One X chromosome and two Y
chromosomes and phenotypically male
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Newborn Senses
• Researchers use habituation to measure senses
• High sensitivity to smells and respond differently to
pleasant and unpleasant smells
• Can recognize their mother by smell
• Fetus can hear very well beginning gestational month seven
• Infants prefer sounds with higher frequencies
• Young infants do not see detail at a distance
• Show innate preference for faces, which may be related to
importance of social relationships
• Those that refuse to make eye contact often develop social
and language impairments later
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Physical Changes in Infancy and Childhood (1 of 2)
• Nervous system development:
• Rapid growth in gray matter or neural cell bodies
• Between birth and end of third month, the brain grows
64%, about half the size of an adult brain
• About twice as many synapses as adults
• Use it or lose it principle: Children raised in stimulating
and enriched environment are likely to have the best
outcomes. Children living in intellectually impoverished
circumstances may retain too few connections, which
may lead to forms of intellectual disability.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Physical Changes in Infancy and Childhood (2 of 2)
• Head to toe development:
• Controlling muscles of neck and shoulders to look
around at 2 months, then torso at 3 months, then legs
and arms for crawling or walking at 6–9 months
• Midline development:
• Divides body in equal halves and proceeds outward. Can
bat toys at 3 months, then grasp objects at 5 months
• Fine muscle movement of hands and finger
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Physical Growth is Rapid in Childhood
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Gender Development
• Indicate preference for sex-typed toys between ages of 12
and 18 months
• Have not yet been socialized to think in terms of male or
female
• Biology and experience interact to produce an outcome
• By age 3, children begin using gender labels consistently
• Transgender identity:
• Complex interactions among genetic, hormonal,
cognitive, and psychosocial factors contribute to the
development of transgender identity.
• Young transgender children show a strong preference for
their expressed gender rather than their sex at birth.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
• According to Piaget, cognitive abilities develop
through regular stages:
• Cognition matures as child uses concepts and
organizing schemas
• Assimilation: No changes to the existing schema
are required to add the new instance
• Accommodation: New information has to be added
to the existing schema to expand information
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Piaget’s Four Stages of Development (1 of 2)
• Sensorimotor stage:
• Begins at birth and lasts until child’s second birthday
• Characterized by active exploration of the environment
• Object permanence: The ability to form mental
representations of objects that are no longer present. Occurs
around 8 months of age
• Preoperational stage:
• Lasts from age 2 to age 6
• Engaging in internal mental operations or manipulation
• Use of symbols, egocentrism, and limits on the ability to
reason logically. Includes the belief that appearances are real
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Piaget’s Four Stages of Development (2 of 2)
• Concrete operational stage:
• Lasts between the ages of 6 and 12
• Problems of conservation are easily solved, thinking becomes
more logical
• Children reason best when allowed to engage in hands-on
learning
• Formal operational stage:
• Begins around the age of 12
• Can handle abstract concepts and “what if” types of questions
• Abstract thinking improves problem-solving skills, stimulates
burst of idealism
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Development
(1 of 2)
• Lev Vygotsky:
• Individuals gain knowledge by interacting socially and
collaboratively
• Language is used to initiate social contact and opportunity to
learn
• Information processing:
• Extends Piaget’s theories by describing specific changes in
ability to reason
• Rate of processing information increases as we age
• Naïve theories:
• Young children understand even before interactive experience
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Development
(2 of 2)
• Theory of mind:
• Used to track typical and abnormal
development
• Understanding that others have beliefs,
desires, and intentions different from our own
• Emerges at around the age of 3 to 4 years
• Joint attention such as eye contract and finger
pointing
• Ability to differentiate between intentional and
unintentional behaviors
• Critical to further social development
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Attachment
• Attachment:
• Maintaining closeness is a high priority, and infants engage in
behaviors to ensure adult attention. Examined by Ainsworth
• According to Harlow’s experiments, attachment is based on
ability to provide contact comfort, not feeding
• Secure attachment: A pattern of infant–caregiver bonding in
which children explore confidently and return to the parent or
caregiver for reassurance
• Insecure attachment: A pattern of infant-–caregiver bonding
generally characterized as less desirable for the child’s
outcomes
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Parenting Styles
• Can vary along two dimensions: parental support and
behavioral regulation
• Parental support:
• Empathy and recognition of the child’s perspective
• Behavioral regulation
• Supervision of the child’s behavior accompanied by
consistent discipline and clear expectations
• High behavioral regulation: Authoritative/authoritarian
• Low behavioral regulation: Indulgent/uninvolved
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Activity:
• Which type of parenting style do you think leads to the best
outcomes for the child? Why? Can more than one be effective?
Why or why not?
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Activity Debrief:
• The authoritative parenting style, a cross between high parental
support and high behavioral regulation, seems to work best.
This is the ideal style for parents, as evidenced by the superior
outcomes among children raised by parents using this style.
Limits are appropriate for the age and stage of the child’s
development, and consequences are educational, not punitive.
Authoritative parents are consistent and firm but also warm and
reasonable. They communicate their standards and invite
feedback, but there is no question as to who is running the
show.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Adolescence
• Adolescence: A period of development beginning at puberty and
ending at young adulthood
• Puberty: Typically marks the beginning of adolescence
• Marked by secondary sex characteristics, sexual maturation
• Substantial gray matter growth, which peaks between the
ages of 11 and 12
• Mismatch model: Accounts for greater levels of risk-taking and
sensation-seeking that characterized adolescence compared to
childhood and adulthood
• Teen brain responds more vigorously to pleasure than the
adult brain, resulting in the potential for risky behavior
overwhelming the teen’s better judgment
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cognitive and Moral Development in Adolescence
• Preconventional morality:
• Kohlberg’s stage at which moral choices are made
according to expectations of reward or punishment
• Conventional morality:
• Kohlberg’s stage of moral development in which moral
choices are made according to law or public opinion
• Postconventional morality:
• Kohlberg’s stage of moral reasoning at which moral choices
are made according to personal standards and reason
• Identity:
• A consistent, unified sense of self
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Emerging and Young Adulthood
• Postformal thought:
• Difference between adolescent and adult thinking
• Recognizes that the “right answer” is often “it depends” and
many questions are complex and ambiguous
• Adolescents are more likely to think in absolutes and defer to
authorities
• Moving to independent, postformal thought is described as
critical thinking
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Midlife
• Midlife: Some describe it as based on age and physical
characteristics, others as a growing sense of mortality
• Menopause: The complete cessation of a woman’s
menstrual cycle
• Males experience reduced sperm quantity, little to no
decrease in testosterone
• Significant changes in social and work roles
• Generativity: Most find that progress has been
made toward goals, even if not met. Feel their lives
have value
• Stagnation: Lack of satisfaction in life
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Late Adulthood (1 of 2)
• Physical changes:
• Brain reaches maturity around age 25, begins to decrease in
weight, leading to about a 5% decrease by age 80
• Cognition:
• Sematic memories may decrease in very late adulthood.
• Intelligence remains relatively stable, unless experiencing
dementia.
• Crystalized intelligence changes less than fluid intelligence.
• Creative output gradually declines.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Late Adulthood (2 of 2)
• Social and emotional aspects:
• Integrity:
• People who are happy with their life’s experiences generally
experience integrity. Met most goals and had fun doing so
• Despair:
• Those who reach late adulthood feeling that life passed them
by are likely to experience despair
• Loneliness decreases with age into the 70s
• Need for social connections remain strong
• Married older adults show patterns of conflict avoidance, which
contributes to higher levels of marital satisfaction
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Summary
Now that the lesson has ended, you should have learned:
• To evaluate evidence for sensory capacities, preferences, and
reflexes in newborn infants.
• To identify physical, cognitive, and social/emotional difference
during various stages of life and how they influence one another.
• To differentiate Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development, as
well as alternative approaches.
• To debate attachment, temperament, cultures, and parenting
styles.
• To identify epigenetic processes and the impact of experience.
• To debate research for continuity in physical, cognitive, and
social/emotional development.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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