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For the second deliverable, your group will create a brief executive summary and 
submit it to the dropbox on Learn. An executive summary should summarize the key points of 
your upcoming report that you will submit in deliverable 3. This will touch on the most 
important aspects of your paper that you would like the reader to take away including
What serves to communicate and reinforce the company’s culture(only need answer this one)

The strength of the organization’s culture
What factors, including the founder(s), have contributed to the development of the culture
How employees are socialized into the organization
Ongoing equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts
Completing a detailed and organized executive summary will help you organize your report. Including one short paragraph per bullet point above summarizing what you have learned about the organization thus far should help you achieve this goal. Because the executive summary will be submitted prior to the completion of your report, you are free to make whatever changes you wish to the structure of the final paper that you deem necessary. That is, you are not bound by what you have said or included in your executive summary should you choose to make changes.Organizational Behaviour:
Understanding and Managing Life at
Work
Twelfth Edition
Chapter 8
Social Influence, Socialization,
and Organizational Culture
Copyright © 2023 Pearson Canada Inc.
8-1
Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
LO8.1 Understand the difference between information
dependence and effect dependence, and
differentiate compliance, identification, and
internalization as motives for social conformity.
LO8.2 Describe the socialization process and the stages of
organizational socialization.
LO8.3 Describe the implications of unrealistic expectations
and the psychological contract for socialization.
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8-2
Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
LO8.4 Describe the main methods of socialization and how
newcomers can be proactive in their socialization.
LO8.5 Define organizational culture, and discuss the assets
and liabilities of strong cultures.
LO8.6 Discuss the contributors to an organization’s culture.
LO8.7 Describe how to diagnose an organizational culture.
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8-3
Social Influence in Organizations
• As a result of social influence, people often feel or act
differently from how they would as independent operators.
• This is because in many social settings, and especially in
groups, people are highly dependent on others.
• This dependence sets the stage for influence to occur.
• Two kinds of dependence are information dependence
and effect dependence.
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8-4
Information Dependence
• Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel,
and act.
• Information dependence gives others the opportunity to
influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions via the
signals they send to us.
• This process is explained by social information processing
theory.
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8-5
Social Information Processing Theory
• Organizational members use information from others to
interpret events and develop expectations about
appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours.
• The effects of social information can be very strong, often
exerting as much or more influence over others as
objective reality.
• Individual behaviour is influenced and shaped by others.
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8-6
Effect Dependence (1 of 2)
• Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide
rewards and punishment.
• The group frequently has a vested interest in how
individual members think and act.
• Group members desire the approval of the group.
• These circumstances promote effect dependence.
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Effect Dependence (2 of 2)
• Managers have many rewards and punishments available
(e.g., promotions, raises, assignment of favourable tasks).
• Effects available to co-workers include praise, friendship,
and a helping hand on the job.
• Lack of cooperation might result in nagging, harassment,
name calling, or social isolation.
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8-8
The Social Influence Process and
Conformity (1 of 3)
• One of the most obvious consequences of information and
effect dependence is the tendency for group members to
conform to the social norms that have been established by
the group.
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8-9
The Social Influence Process and
Conformity (2 of 3)
• There are three different motives for social conformity:
– Compliance
– Identification
– Internalization
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Compliance
• Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to
acquire rewards or avoid punishment.
• Compliance is the simplest, most direct motive for
conformity to group norms.
• It primarily involves effect dependence.
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8 – 11
Identification
• Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that
those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to
oneself.
• Information dependence is especially important.
• If someone is basically similar to you, then you will be
motivated to rely on that person for information about how
to think and act.
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Internalization
• Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance
of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm.
• Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, not because
it achieves rewards, avoids punishment, or pleases
others.
• Conformity is due to internal, rather than external forces.
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The Social Influence Process and
Conformity (3 of 3)
• Simple compliance can set the stage for more complete
identification and involvement with organizational norms
and roles.
• The process through which this occurs in organizations is
known as organizational socialization.
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8 – 14
Organizational Socialization (1 of 8)
• Socialization is the process by which people learn the
attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary
to function in a group or organization.
• It is a learning process in which new members must
acquire information and knowledge, change their attitudes,
and perform new behaviours.
• The acquisition of information and knowledge is important
for newcomers to reduce their high levels of uncertainty
about their new job and organization.
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Uncertainty Reduction Theory
• Newcomers are motivated to reduce their uncertainty so
that the work environment becomes more predictable and
understandable.
• The socialization process—through the provision of
information, resources, and interactions with
organizational members—helps to reduce newcomers’
uncertainty and facilitate their adjustment and
socialization.
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8 – 16
Organizational Socialization (2 of 8)
• Socialization is the primary means by which organizations
communicate the organization’s culture and values to new
members.
• Socialization methods influence immediate or proximal
outcomes which lead to more distal or longer-term
outcomes.
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The Socialization Process
Exhibit 8.1 The socialization process.
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Organizational Socialization (3 of 8)
• Learning during socialization involves four main content
areas or domains of learning:
– Task
– Role
– Work group
– Organization
• One of the goals of socialization is to provide new hires
with information and knowledge about their role to avoid
problems of role conflict and role ambiguity.
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Organizational Socialization (4 of 8)
• An important objective of organizational socialization is for
newcomers to achieve a good fit.
• There are three kinds of fit that are important for
socialization:
– Person-job fit (PJ fit)
– Person-organization fit (PO fit)
– Person-group fit (PG fit)
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Organizational Socialization (5 of 8)
• Person-job (PJ) fit refers to the match between an
employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the
requirements of a job.
• Person-organization (PO) fit refers to the match between
an employee’s personal values and the values of an
organization.
• Person-group (PG) fit refers to the match between an
employee’s personal values and the values of their work
group.
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Organizational Socialization (6 of 8)
• PJ and PO fit are strongly influenced by the socialization
process and are related to job attitudes and behaviours.
• An important outcome of socialization is organizational
identification.
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Organizational Socialization (7 of 8)
• Organizational identification refers to the extent to which
individuals define themselves in terms of the organization
and what it is perceived to represent.
• It reflects an individual’s learning and acceptance of an
organization’s culture.
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Organizational Socialization (8 of 8)
• The socialization process occurs before organization
membership formally begins as well as once new
members enter the organization.
• Socialization is an ongoing process by virtue of continuous
interaction with others in the organization.
• It is most potent during certain periods of membership
transition.
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Stages of Socialization
• Socialization is an ongoing process that involves three
stages.
• One of the stages occurs before entry, another
immediately after entry, and the last occurs after one has
been a member for some period of time.
• The first two stages represent hurdles for achieving
passage into the third stage.
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8 – 25
Stages of Organizational
Socialization
Exhibit 8.2 Stages of organizational socialization.
Source: Based on Feldman, D. C. (1976). A contingency theory of socialization.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 433–452; Feldman, D. C. (1981). The multiple
socialization of organization members. Academy of Management Review, 6, 309–318.
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Anticipatory Socialization
• Socialization that takes place before a person becomes a
member of a particular organization.
• Includes formal and informal experiences.
• Organizations vary in the extent to which they encourage
anticipatory socialization.
• Not all anticipatory socialization is accurate and useful for
the new member.
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Encounter (1 of 2)
• The new recruit encounters the day-to-day reality of
organizational life.
• Includes formal events such as orientation programs.
• Informal aspects include getting to know and understand
the style and personality of one’s boss and co-workers.
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Encounter (2 of 2)
• If successful, the recruit will have complied with critical
organizational norms and should begin to identify with
experienced organizational members.
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Role Management
• The new member begins to actively manage their role in
the organization.
• Might modify one’s role to better serve the organization.
• Must balance the organizational role with non-work roles
and family demands.
• Begins to internalize the norms and values that are
prominent in the organization.
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8 – 30
Unrealistic Expectations and the
Psychological Contract
• People join organizations with expectations about what
membership will be like and what they expect to receive in
return for their efforts.
• Expectations are often unrealistic and agreements
between new members and organizations are often
breached.
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Unrealistic Expectations (1 of 3)
• People entering organizations hold many expectations
that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high.
• When newcomers enter an organization they experience a
reality shock—the reality of their new job and organization
is inconsistent with and does not meet their expectations.
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Unrealistic Expectations (2 of 3)
• Newcomers with higher met expectations have higher job
satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance,
and job survival and lower intentions to quit.
• Why do new members often have unrealistic expectations
about the organizations they join?
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Unrealistic Expectations (3 of 3)
• Unrealistic expectations are often the result of the
communication of occupational stereotypes in the media
and even in the classroom.
• Unrealistic expectations may also stem from overzealous
recruiters who paint rosy pictures to attract job candidates
to the organization.
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Psychological Contract
• Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal
obligations and promises between them and their
organization.
• An employee might expect to receive bonuses and
promotions in return for hard work and loyalty.
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Psychological Contract Breach (1 of 4)
• Employee perceptions that the organization has failed to
fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the
psychological contract.
• Psychological contract breach is a common occurrence
and is related to affective reactions, work attitudes, and
work behaviours.
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Psychological Contract Breach (2 of 4)
• Breach results in negative emotions that stem from
feelings of violation and mistrust toward management.
• Employee perceptions of breach are also associated with
a decrease in innovation-related behaviours and lower
customer satisfaction.
• Why does psychological contract breach occur?
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Psychological Contract Breach (3 of 4)
• Recruiters often promise more than their organization can
provide.
• Newcomers often lack sufficient information to form
accurate perceptions.
• Organizational changes can cause organizations to
knowingly break promises that they are unable or unwilling
to keep.
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Psychological Contract Breach (4 of 4)
• Organizations need to ensure that truthful and accurate
information about promises and obligations is
communicated to new members.
• Psychological contract breach is less likely in
organizations where socialization is intense.
• Some evidence that what organizations actually give
employees is most important and that the psychological
contract can influence newcomers’ socialization.
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Methods of Socialization (1 of 2)
• Organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing,
how it is done, and how much is done.
• Most organizations make use of the following methods of
socialization:
– Realistic job previews
– Employee orientation programs
– Socialization tactics
– Mentoring
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Methods of Socialization (2 of 2)
• One thing that all of these methods have in common is the
provision of resources to newcomers throughout the
organizational socialization process.
• According to socialization resources theory, providing
newcomers with resources such as information and
support will facilitate their adjustment and successful
socialization.
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Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) (1 of 4)
• The provision of a balanced realistic picture of the positive
and negative aspects of the job to job applicants.
• They provide “corrective action” to unrealistic expectations
at the anticipatory socialization stage of socialization.
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Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) (2 of 4)
• The realistic job preview process can be compared to the
traditional preview process that often sets expectations
too high by ignoring the negative aspects of the job.
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Traditional and Realistic Job
Previews Compared
Exhibit 8.3 Traditional and realistic job previews compared.
Source: American Management Association, from Wanous, J. P. Tell it like it is at realistic
job previews. Personnel, 52(4), 50–60 © 1975.
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Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) (3 of 4)
• How do organizations design and provide realistic job
previews?
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Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) (4 of 4)
• Obtain the views of experienced employees and human
resources staff about the positive and negative aspects of
the job.
• Incorporate views into booklets or video presentations.
• Sometimes simulations are used as RJPs to permit
applicants to actually sample the work.
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Realistic Job Previews: Research
Evidence (1 of 2)
• Realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated
expectations and turnover and improving job performance.
• RJPs cause those not cut out for a job or who have low PJ
and PO fit perceptions to withdraw from the application
process, a process known as self-selection.
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8 – 47
Realistic Job Previews: Research
Evidence (2 of 2)
• Organizations that provide realistic job previews are
perceived by job applicants as more honest and
trustworthy and this encourages them to remain with the
organization once they are hired.
• The reduction in turnover can result in substantial financial
savings for organizations.
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8 – 48
Employee Orientation Programs
• Programs designed to introduce new employees to their
job, the people they will be working with, and the
organization.
• Health and safety issues, terms and conditions of
employment, and information about the organization, such
as its history and traditions.
• They also convey and form the psychological contract and
teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work
situations.
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8 – 49
Realistic Orientation Program for
Entry Stress (ROPES)
• An orientation program that is designed to help
newcomers cope with stress.
• Newcomers learn how to use cognitive and behavioural
coping techniques to manage workplace stressors.
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8 – 50
Employee Orientation Programs:
Research Evidence (1 of 2)
• Orientation programs can have an immediate effect on
learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and
behaviours of new hires.
• In one study, employees who attended an orientation
program were more socialized in terms of their knowledge
and understanding of the organization and reported higher
organizational commitment.
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Employee Orientation Programs:
Research Evidence (2 of 2)
• Orientation programs have been found to result in a
reduction in the rate of turnover.
• ROPES lowers expectations and stress, and improves
newcomers’ adjustment and retention.
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Socialization Tactics (1 of 5)
• The manner in which organizations structure the early
work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are
in transition from one role to another.
• There are six socialization tactics.
• They can be grouped into two separate patterns of
socialization that are called institutionalized socialization
and individualized socialization.
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Institutionalized Socialization
• Institutionalized socialization consists of the collective,
formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics.
• A formalized and structured program of socialization that
reduces uncertainty and encourages new hires to accept
organizational norms and maintain the status quo.
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Individualized Socialization
• Individualized socialization consists of the individual,
informal, random, variable, disjunctive, and divestiture
tactics.
• A relative absence of structure that creates ambiguity and
encourages new hires to question the status quo and
develop their own approach to their role.
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Socialization Tactics (2 of 5)
• The tactics have also been distinguished in terms of the
context in which information is presented to new hires; the
content provided to new hires; and the social aspects of
socialization.
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8 – 56
Socialization Tactics
Exhibit 8.4 Socialization tactics.
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Collective Versus Individual Tactics
• When using the collective tactic, a number of new
members are socialized as a group, going through the
same experiences and facing the same challenges.
• The individual tactic consists of socialization experiences
that are tailor-made for each new member.
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Formal Versus Informal Tactics
• The formal tactic involves segregating newcomers from
regular organizational members and providing them with
formal learning experiences.
• Informal tactics do not distinguish a newcomer from more
experienced members and rely more on informal and onthe-job learning.
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Sequential Versus Random Tactics
• With a sequential tactic, there is a fixed sequence of steps
or stages leading to the assumption of the role.
• With the random tactic, there is an ambiguous or changing
sequence of events.
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Fixed Versus Variable Tactics
• With a fixed tactic, there is a timetable for the newcomer’s
assumption of the role.
• If the tactic is variable, there is no time frame to indicate
when the socialization process ends and the newcomer
assumes their new role.
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Serial Versus Disjunctive Tactics
• The serial tactic refers to a process in which newcomers
are socialized by experienced members of the
organization.
• The disjunctive tactic refers to a socialization process
where role models and experienced organization
members do not groom new members or “show them the
ropes.”
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Investiture Versus Divestiture Tactics
• The divestiture tactic involves experiences that are
designed to humble new hires and strip away some of
their initial self-confidence.
• The investiture tactic affirms the incoming identity and
attributes of new hires rather than denying and stripping
them away.
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Socialization Tactics (3 of 5)
• Why would an organization chose institutionalized over
individualized socialization?
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Socialization Tactics (4 of 5)
• Institutionalized socialization tactics are effective in
promoting organizational loyalty and uniformity of
behaviour.
• When socialization is individualized, new members are
more likely to take on the particular characteristics and
style of those who are socializing them.
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Socialization Tactics (5 of 5)
• Uniformity is less likely with individualized socialization.
• Institutionalized socialization is always followed up by
some individualized socialization as the new member joins
their regular work unit.
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Socialization Tactics: Research
Evidence (1 of 2)
• Institutionalized socialization tactics have been found to
be related to proximal and distal socialization outcomes:
– Lower role ambiguity and role conflict
– More positive PJ and PO fit perceptions
– More positive job satisfaction and organizational
commitment
– Lower stress and turnover
– A more custodial role orientation
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Socialization Tactics: Research
Evidence (2 of 2)
• Individualized socialization tactics result in a more
innovative role orientation in which new recruits might
change or modify the way they perform their tasks and
roles.
• Institutionalized tactics result in greater satisfaction of
newcomers’ basic psychological needs.
• The social tactics (serial-disjunctive and investituredivestiture) have been found to be the most strongly
related to socialization outcomes.
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Mentoring (1 of 2)
• A mentor is an experienced or more senior person in the
organization who provides a junior person guidance and
special attention, such as giving advice and creating
opportunities to assist them during the early stages of their
career.
• Mentoring is a type of developmental relationship that
produces benefits for a protégé’s work and/or career.
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Mentoring (2 of 2)
• For mentors to be effective, they must perform two types
of developmental functions:
– Career functions
– Psychosocial functions
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Career Functions of Mentoring
• The career functions of mentoring provide careerenhancing benefits and include:
– Sponsorship
– Exposure and visibility
– Coaching and feedback
– Developmental assignments
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Psychosocial Functions of Mentoring
• The psychosocial functions help develop the newcomer’s
self-confidence, sense of identity, and ability to cope with
emotional traumas that can damage a person’s
effectiveness. They include:
– Role modelling
– Providing acceptance and confirmation
– Counselling
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Formal Mentoring Programs
• Mentoring relationships have often been informal without
the direct involvement of the organization.
• Formal mentoring programs are organizationally
sponsored programs in which seasoned employees are
recruited as mentors and matched with protégés.
• They have become increasingly popular and are now
provided by many organizations.
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Developmental Networks
• Groups of people who take an active interest in and
actions toward advancing a protégé’s career by providing
developmental assistance.
• A protégé can have multiple developers from inside and
outside of the organization and include people from
different hierarchical levels of the organization.
• A newcomer is more likely to obtain different types of
support and a broader range of career outcomes.
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Women and Mentoring (1 of 3)
• Many professional women in Canada do not have a
mentor to help coach them in their career.
• The lack of mentors and role models is a major barrier for
the career advancement of women.
• The prospective female apprentice faces more constraints
than her male counterpart.
• Cross-gender mentor-apprentice dyads are less likely to
get involved in informal after-work social activities and to
see their mentor as a role model.
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Women and Mentoring (2 of 3)
• With many organizations now providing formal mentoring
programs, the barriers facing women in finding a mentor
have been removed.
• The negative effects associated with cross-gender dyads
dissipates as the mentoring relationship develops over
time.
• Protégés in cross-gender dyads receive just as much
career and psychosocial mentoring as those in samegender relationships.
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Women and Mentoring (3 of 3)
• How critical is mentoring to a woman’s career?
• Mentoring is even more critical to women’s career success
than it is to men’s.
• Female managers and professionals benefit the most from
a senior male mentor in male-dominated industries.
• For women with career aspirations, finding a mentor
appears to be a difficult but crucial task.
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Race, Ethnicity, and Mentoring (1 of 3)
• Mentors tend to select individuals who are similar to them
in terms of race and nationality as well as gender.
• Minority apprentices in cross-ethnic group mentoring
relationships report less assistance, compared to those
with same-race mentors.
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Race, Ethnicity, and Mentoring (2 of 3)
• Cross-race mentoring relationships focus on the career
functions of mentoring and provide less psychosocial
support functions.
• As a result, minority group members need to develop a
supportive network of peers who can provide emotional
support and role modelling.
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Race, Ethnicity, and Mentoring (3 of 3)
• Organizations must do more to provide mentoring
opportunities for minority employees.
• Many organizations include networking and mentoring
opportunities as part of their diversity strategy.
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Mentoring: Research Evidence (1 of 3)
• Mentored individuals have higher objective (e.g.,
compensation) and subjective career outcomes (e.g.,
career satisfaction).
• Mentoring is more strongly related to subjective than
objective career outcomes.
• The psychosocial function is more strongly related to
satisfaction with the mentoring relationship.
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Mentoring: Research Evidence (2 of 3)
• The career function is more strongly related to
compensation and advancement.
• Both functions are just as important in generating positive
attitudes toward one’s job and career.
• Formal mentoring programs are just as beneficial as
informal relationships.
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Mentoring: Research Evidence (3 of 3)
• Formal mentoring programs are most effective when the
mentor and protégé have input into the matching process
and when they receive training prior to the mentoring
relationship.
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Newcomer Proactive Socialization
Behaviours (1 of 2)
• The process through which newcomers play an active role
in their own socialization through the use of proactive
socialization behaviours.
• Two of the most important proactive behaviours:
– Feedback seeking: Requesting feedback about one’s
work and job performance.
– Information seeking: Seeking information about one’s
work tasks, roles, work group, and organization.
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Newcomer Proactive Socialization
Behaviours (2 of 2)
• Newcomers can acquire information by requesting it, by
asking questions, and by observing the behaviour of
others.
• Newcomers rely primarily on observation, followed by
interpersonal sources (e.g., supervisors and co-workers).
• They seek out task-related information the most followed
by role, group, and organization information.
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Newcomer Proactive Socialization
Behaviours
EXHIBIT 8.6 Proactive socialization behaviours.
Feedback seeking Requesting information about how one is performing.
Information seeking Requesting information about one’s job, role, group, and organization.
General socializing Participating in social office events and attending social gatherings (e.g., parties, outings, clubs, and
lunches).
Relationship building Initiating social interactions and building relationships with others in one’s area or department.
Positive framing Perceiving or framing the new work situation in a positive manner such as by looking at the positive side
of things and viewing situations as opportunities rather than threats.
Boss-relationship building Initiating social interactions to get to know and form a relationship with one’s boss.
Networking Socializing with and getting to know members of the organization from various departments and functions.
Job change negotiation Attempts to change one’s job duties or the manner and means by which one performs one’s job
in order to increase the fit between oneself and the job.
Source: Based on Ashford, S. J., & Black, J. S. (1996). Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for
control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 199–214; Wanberg, C. R., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2000). Predictors and
outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 373–385.
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Newcomer Proactive Socialization
Behaviours: Research Evidence
• Newcomers who engage in proactive behaviours more
frequently are more likely to obtain the corresponding
proactive outcomes (e.g., more feedback-seeking results
in obtaining more feedback).
• Proactive behaviours and outcomes are positively related
to proximal (e.g., fit perceptions) and distal (e.g., job
satisfaction) socialization outcomes.
• Environmental as well individual factors influence
newcomers’ proactive behaviours.
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Organizational Culture
• The course of socialization both depends on and shapes
the culture of the organization.
• An organization’s culture can have a strong effect on the
attitudes and behaviour of employees.
• Culture is so important that many employees place more
emphasis on a strong organizational culture than on their
compensation.
• What exactly is an organizational culture?
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What Is Organizational Culture? (1 of 2)
• Informally, culture can be thought of as an organization’s
style, atmosphere, or personality.
• Culture provides uniqueness and social identity to
organizations.
• Organizational culture consists of the shared beliefs,
values, and assumptions that exist in an organization.
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What Is Organizational Culture? (2 of 2)
• These shared beliefs, values, and assumptions determine
the norms that develop and the patterns of behaviour that
emerge from these norms.
CULTURE
→ NORMS →
BEHAVIOUR
• Several other characteristics of culture are important.
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Characteristics of Organizational
Culture (1 of 2)
• It represents a true “way of life” for organizational
members who often take its influence for granted.
• It tends to be fairly stable over time and once established
it can persist despite turnover among organizational
members, providing social continuity.
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Characteristics of Organizational
Culture (2 of 2)
• The content of a culture can involve matters that are
internal to the organization or external.
• Culture can have a strong impact on both organizational
performance and member satisfaction.
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Subcultures (1 of 2)
• Can an organization have several cultures?
• An organization can have several cultures or what are
known as subcultures.
• Subcultures are smaller cultures that develop within a
larger organizational culture that are based on differences
in training, occupation, or departmental goals.
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Subcultures (2 of 2)
• Effective organizations develop an overarching culture to
manage differences between subcultures.
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The “Strong Culture” Concept (1 of 3)
• A strong culture is an organizational culture with intense
and pervasive beliefs, values, and assumptions.
• A strong culture provides great consensus concerning
“what the organization is about” or what it stands for.
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The “Strong Culture” Concept (2 of 3)
• In weak cultures, beliefs, values, and assumptions are
less strongly ingrained or less widely shared across the
organization.
• Weak cultures are fragmented and have less impact on
organizational members.
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Organizations with Strong Cultures
• Some organizations that are generally agreed to have
strong cultures:
– Hilti (Canada) Corp.: Can-do attitude (“Gung-Ho!”).
– Google Canada: Innovation and entrepreneurship.
– Shopify: Collaboration and innovation.
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The “Strong Culture” Concept (3 of 3)
• An organization does not have to be big to have a strong
culture.
• Strong cultures do not necessarily result in blind
conformity.
• Strong cultures are associated with greater success and
effectiveness.
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Assets of Strong Cultures
• Organizations with strong cultures have several potential
advantages:
– Coordination
– Conflict resolution
– Financial success
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Coordination
• The overarching values and assumptions of strong
cultures can facilitate communication and coordination.
• Different parts of the organization can learn from each
other and can coordinate their efforts.
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Conflict Resolution
• Sharing core values is a powerful mechanism that helps to
resolve conflicts.
• The core value will often suggest an appropriate dispute
resolution mechanism.
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Financial Success
• Strong cultures contribute to financial success and
organizational effectiveness when the culture supports the
mission, strategy, and goals of the organization.
• WestJet Airlines: One of the most profitable airlines in
North America and consistently ranked as having one of
the most admired corporate cultures in Canada.
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Liabilities of Strong Cultures
• Strong cultures can be a liability under some
circumstances:
– Resistance to change
– Culture clash
– Pathology
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Resistance to Change
• A strong culture can prove very resistant to change and
can damage a firm’s ability to innovate.
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Culture Clash
• Strong cultures can mix badly when a merger or
acquisition pushes two of them together under the same
corporate banner.
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Pathology
• Some strong cultures can threaten organizational
effectiveness simply because the cultures are, in some
sense, pathological.
• Cultures based on beliefs, values, and assumptions that
support infighting, secrecy, and paranoia.
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Contributors to the Culture (1 of 2)
• How are cultures built and maintained?
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Contributors to the Culture (2 of 2)
• Two key factors that contribute to the foundation and
continuation of organizational cultures:
– The founder’s role
– Socialization
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The Founder’s Role
• Many cultures, especially strong cultures, reflect the
values of an organization’s founder.
• Top management strongly shapes an organization’s
culture.
• The culture usually emulates what top management “pays
attention to.”
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Socialization
• The precise nature of the socialization process is a key to
the culture that emerges in an organization.
• Socialization is one of the primary means by which
individuals can learn a culture’s beliefs, values, and
assumptions.
• Organizations with strong cultures go to great pains to
expose employees to a careful, step-by-step socialization
process.
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Socialization Steps in Strong
Cultures (1 of 2)
• Step 1: Selecting Employees
• Step 2: Debasement and Hazing
• Step 3: Training “in the Trenches”
• Step 4: Reward and Promotion
• Step 5: Exposure to Core Culture
• Step 6: Organizational Folklore
• Step 7: Role Models
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Socialization Steps in Strong
Cultures
Exhibit 8.7 Socialization steps in strong cultures.
Source: Pascale, R. (1985). The paradox of “corporate culture”: reconciling ourselves to
socialization. California Management Review, 27(2), 199–214.
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Socialization Steps in Strong
Cultures (2 of 2)
• It is the consistency among these steps and their mutually
reinforcing properties that make for a strong culture.
• Walt Disney Company is a good example of an
organization that uses many of these steps.
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Diagnosing a Culture
• One way to grasp a culture is to examine the symbols,
rituals, and stories that characterize the organization’s
way of life.
• For insiders, symbols, rituals, and stories are mechanisms
that teach, communicate, and reinforce the company’s
culture.
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Symbols
• Symbols are strong indicators of corporate culture.
• Some executives are particularly skilled at using symbols
consciously to reinforce cultural values.
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Rituals
• Rites, rituals, and ceremonies can convey the essence of
a culture and can include:
– Recognition awards and events
– Monthly parties
– Beach parties
– Employee nights
– Award ceremonies
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Stories (1 of 2)
• Organizations often communicate their culture through the
use of stories.
• The folklore of organizations—stories about past
organizational events—is a common aspect of culture.
• Stories communicate “how things work” and reflect the
uniqueness of organizational cultures.
• A few common themes underlie many organizational
stories.
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Common Themes of Organizational
Stories
• Is the big boss human?
• Can the little person rise to the top?
• Will I get fired?
• Will the organization help me when I have to move?
• How will the boss react to mistakes?
• How will the organization deal with obstacles?
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Stories (2 of 2)
• Issues of equality, security, and control underlie these
stories.
• Stories often have a “good” version and a “bad” version.
• The retelling of a story is indicative of an organization’s
core values.
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